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(Entered at the Post Office of New York. N. Y., as Second Class Matter. Copyright, 1S06, by Munn & Co.] 



Vol. XCV.-No. 21. . 

ESTABLISHED 1845. J 



NEW YORK. NOVEMBER 24, 1906. 



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The Drilling Platform is Carried on Four Massive Timbers Sixty Feet in Length. The Drill is Inclosed in a Heavy Telescopic Pipe to Protect It from the Rush 

of the Tide, Which Plows at This Point at from Five to Six Miles per Hour. 



BLASTING OUT A REEF IN NEW YORK HARBOR— [See page 382.] 



378 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



ESTABLISHED 1845 



MUNN & CO. 



Editors and Proprietors 



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NEW YORK, SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 1906. 



The Editor is always glad to receive for examination illustrated 
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THE CONGESTION AT THE PATENT OFFICE. 

There is no sign of improvement in the serious con- 
gestion that hampers the work of the Patent Office, 
which, more than ever before in its history, stands 
badly in need of a larger staff, receiving better re- 
muneration for its services. Even as far back as the 
first of January of the present year, there were, in the 
thirty-nine divisions of the Patent Office, 17,353 appli- 
cations awaiting action; while at the present writing 
there are about 21,000 cases on file which have not yet 
been examined. Moreover, the office is falling behind 
at the rate of from 250 to 300 cases a week. 

As was to be expected, the delay is greater in some 
than in other divisions of the Office. In the more 
important divisions the delay varies from about five 
months, with nearly 500 cases on hand, in steam en- 
gineering, to nearly twelve months, with over 1,000 
cases on hand, in the division of hydraulic motors, 
pumps, and sewerage appliances. 

The arguments in favor of the exercise of a more 
liberal policy on the part of Congress toward the 
Patent Office are so obvious and weighty, and the ap- 
propriation that would be necessary to straighten out 
this miserable tangle would be so moderate in propor- 
tion to the benefit conferred, that the persistent in- 
difference of Congress to the needs of this great insti- 
tution is beyond all comprehension. 



EXTRAORDINARY CONDITIONS IN THE STEEL 
INDUSTRY, 

Rarely, if ever, in the history of modern industries, 
either here or abroad, has there been witnessed such 
an extraordinary condition as confronts the steel in- 
dustry in the United States. Already the rail mills 
are crowded with orders to such an extent that their 
total output up to the end of next year will barely 
serve to meet the present demand; and the mills 
which are devoted to the production of structural steel 
are overloaded with work, and must be pushed to the 
very utmost to fill orders that are due to be delivered 
before the spring of 1907. Even more acute conditions 
prevail at the plate mills, the demand for whose out- 
put is to be attributed very largely to the growing pop- 
ularity of steel cars. These mills have sufficient orders 
on the books to keep them going at full pressure, 
practically for the whole of next year. There are 
many evidences of the prevailing industrial activity; 
but none, we think, speaks so eloquently as this. Who 
would have predicted, at the time of the formation of 
the United States Steel Corporation a few years ago, 
that within so short a time not only that great aggre- 
gation, but also the independent concerns, would be 
taking orders for material which could not possibly be 
delivered for twelve months or more from the date of 
signing the contracts? 



GROWTH OF THE SALTON SEA ARRESTED. 

Recent reports from the locality of the Salton Sea 
indicate that the flow of the Colorado River from its 
natural channel into the Salton sink is at last under 
control, the recent rise in the Colorado having failed 
to imperil the dam which the Southern Pacific and 
government engineers have constructed at the break 
in the river's banks. Before its control the river had 
risen until it covered an area of several hundred 
square miles, and in the bottom of the depression it 
had a depth of between seventy and eighty feet. When 
the waters first reached the tracks of the Southern 
Pacific Railway, the latter were moved back for a 
distance which was thought .sufficient to place them 
beyond danger from further encroachment. Yet it was 
not long before the waters were again lapping at the 
ties; and in spite of the fact that the tracks had been 
several times driven back by the ever-widening sea, 



Scientific American. 

the railroad, we understand, was contemplating the 
expense and trouble of another retreat. Recently the 
only indication of the original location of these tracks 
was the tops of the telegraph poles, which projected 
above the water far from the present shore line. As 
it is, the company was obliged to build an entirely 
new detour line, forty miles in length, at an elevation 
of about seventy feet above the old line, and nearly 
forty miles of the old line had to be abandoned. It is 
now stated that comparatively little actual damage 
was done to the cultivated section of the valley. 



GUN TRIALS OF THE "DREADNOUGHT." 

So great has been the interest aroused in the 
"Dreadnought," that our recent article upon this ship 
would be incomplete without some statement of the 
manner in which she behaved under the very severe 
gun trials to which she was recently subjected. These 
trials are of special interest to the naval constructor 
and the ordnance expert; for the former has freely 
predicted that when the sh'p came to trial, it would 
be found that too much had been attempted, and that 
the wide arcs of training through which it was claimed 
the 12-inch guns could be used, would have to be re- 
duced, unless the ship were to be badly wrecked by the 
concussion and blast. It was freely asserted that the 
designed end-on fire of six 12-inch guns could never be 
realized, for the reason that the blast would be certain 
to distort the framing of the decks and vertical bulk- 
head forming the embrasures through which the guns, 
when trained dead ahead, would have to be fired; and 
instances were quoted where serious damage of this 
character had resulted to ships both of our own and 
the British navy. As a matter of fact, the scantling 
of the "Dreadnought," in those portions of the deck 
and superstructure that would be exposed to the blast, 
had been built of heavier section and weights to meet 
the resulting stresses; and after the gun trials, care- 
ful examination revealed no material injury to the 
ship. Eight of the gunswere fired simultaneously on both 
sides of the ship, the guns being all laid at the maxi- 
mum elevation of a little over 30 degrees." In spite of 
the fact that the aggregate energy of the broadside 
was 384,000 foot tons, or sufficient to raise the "Dread- 
nought" bodily 21 feet into the air, the roll of the 
ship under this heavy recoil is said to have been very 
slight. The forward pair of guns on the forecastle, and 
each pair of guns in the two turrets on the broadside, 
were fired simultaneously dead ahead, and each pair of 
guns in all the barbettes was fired on various bearings 
through its own arc of training; but no structural de- 
fect was revealed. Similarly, each of the guns was 
fired at various degrees of elevation and depression 
with satisfactory results. As the result of the trials, it 
was considered by the trial board that the whole of 
the ten 12-inch guns for broadside, and the six 12-inch 
guns for bow and stern fire, can be used effectively in 
any position. 



THE SIZE OF OCEAN WAVES. 

The latest investigation of the question of the size 
of ocean waves is that made by the eminent naval 
architect, M. Bertin, who agrees with all the qualified 
students of this subject in stating that the size of the 
largest ocean waves has been greatly overestimated. 
According to this authority, of the several methods by 
which the length of a wave may be determined, the 
most reliable is that of deducing it from the theory 
that there is a simple relation between the time of com- 
plete oscillation and the length. The longest wave of 
which M\ Bertin has knowledge measured 2,590 feet 
from crest to crest, and its period was twenty-thre.e 
seconds. The long waves, however, are not unusual- 
ly high, and in deep water the height of a wave 2,590 
feet in length would be not more than one-fiftieth of 
its length, or say about 50 feet. Observers, particular- 
ly those who were situated on small vessels, claim to 
have witnessed waves much higher than this, but their 
observations are not of much value, for the reason that 
the deck of such a vessel floats parallel to the surface 
of the waves instead of parallel with the plane of the 
horizon, and the inclination of the deck will thus give 
the observers an exaggerated impression of the height 
Of an oncoming wave. M. Bertin accepts as reliable, 
records taken where this source of error was care- 
fully eliminated, which show the highest waves in open 
water to have measured 50 feet from trough to crest, 
although he is of the opinion that in the southern 
seas waves of even greater height than this may occa- 
sionally be met. As the waves enter shoal water their 
period decreases and they become higher, so that on 
striking a shoal, a 40-foot wave will climb to a height 
of 50 feet or more. Should it meet an obstacle that 
approaches the vertical, it may easily be thrown up to 
a height of 100 feet or more; as at the celebrated 
Eddystone Light off Plymouth, where solid green 
water has at times been known to reach a height of 
100 feet. Although the period of the longest waves 
may occasionally reach twenty-three seconds, and its 
length 2,500 feet, such waves are exceedingly rare, the 
common length of a long wave being something over 
500 feet and the period ten seconds. The average 



November 24, 1906. 

period is from six to eight seconds, and the length 
from 160 to 320 feet. It is rarely that the height ex- 
ceeds 33 feet. 



PROGRESS OF THE PENNSYLVANIA EAST RIVER 
TUNNELS. 
Interest has been so largely centered upon the con- 
struction of the Pennsylvania Railroad tubes beneath 
the Hudson River, the completion of which was recent- 
ly announced, that the public is in comparative ignor- 
ance as to the extensive work which is being done by 
the railroad company in tunneling the East River. 
Altogether, four separate tubes are being driven, which 
are known respectively as tunnels A, B, C, and D. Of 
the four, tunnel A, the northernmost,' is the least ad- 
vanced. The tube has been driven for only about 150 
feet, and the men are now beginning to get out of the 
solid rock into the sand and gravel. Tunnel B is the 
farthest advanced, the shield having been pushed out 
into the river bottom for a distance of over 900 feet 
from the shaft, which is located near First Avenue on 
Manhattan Island. . Tunnel C is about 600 feet out 
from the shaft, and tunnel D a little less than 900 
feet. It is gratifying to learn that the company is 
using every effort to protect the men from the effects 
of working in compressed air, a number of devices 
having been adopted for this purpose. The latest of 
these is the provision of an independent supply of 
compressed air for each lock; an arrangement which 
has the advantage that, in case of fire or accident in a 
lock nearer to the shore than the one in which the 
men are working, they will continue to receive fresh 
air independently -of the disabled portion of the tube. 
In tunnel B, at a point about 500 feet from the shaft, 
a new bulkhead is being built for the installation of an 
additional set of locks. When these locks have been 
constructed, the air pressure back of them, that is, on 
the land side, will be reduced. The advantage of this, 
arrangement is that a much smaller chamber will be 
maintained under high pressure, and the lowering of 
the pressure within the completed portion of the tun- 
nel will afford a test of the tightness of the cast-iron 
tubes against the surrounding water. 

^ < -• 1 ^ 

SANTOS DUMONT'S LATEST FLIGHT. 

A cable dispatch from Paris announces that Santos 
Dumont, at 4 o'clock on Monday afternoon, November 
12, made a new record with his aeroplane, "14-bis," 
which we illustrated in flight in our last issue. This 
time he flew against a slight breeze for a distance of 
210 meters (689 feet), or a trifle over one-eighth of a 
mile. The machine was in the air for 21 seconds, 
which corresponds to a speed of 22.36 miles per hour. 
Thus the machine did not show as much speed as in 
the previous trials, doubtless because it was flying 
against a slight wind. The machine showed good 
stability, and apparently had the capability of making 
a much longer flight. It also showed that it was cap- 
able of being steered with ease. M. Dumont made 
a sharp turn to the right, with the intention of describ- 
ing a circle, but so great was the crowd of people on 
all sides, that, fearing for their safety, he shut off 
power and descended. The flight was at length made 
after several unsuccessful attempts earlier in the day, 
in which the motor failed to operate perfectly. At 2 
o'clock there was a strong breeze blowing, and it was 
decided not to try to fly against it. By 4 P. M. the 
breeze had died out considerably and a number of 
attempts were made to fly with the wind. The ma- 
chine rose in the air, but only for a distance of .270 
feet. The flight occupied 7 1-5 seconds, and 82.6 
meters were covered, corresponding to a speed of about 
25.66 miles per hour. Finally, a flight against the 
wind was attempted, with the result noted. M. Du- 
mont expects to make further trials in private, so chat 
he will not be hampered by a crowd of spectators. 
He hopes in the near future to win the $10,000 prize 
for a flight of one kilometer in a circle. In the 
flight of the 12th, he won the $300 prize for the first 
flight of 100 meters. 

While they give Santos Dumont great credit for be- 
ing the first publicly to demonstrate the practicability 
of the aeroplane flying machine, American experiment- 
ers, who have done the most work in this line, do not 
believe that the stability (and therefore practicability) 
of Santos' machine under all weather conditions is 
by any means assured. The fact that, he did not at- 
tempt to fly it against a strong wind, when this is just 
what is needed to aid in getting such a machine up 
in the air, shows, they argue, that he does not have 
much fa.ith in its stability. Santos, on the other hand, 
is so elated by his success that he prophesies that 
aeroplanes for private transportation will soon be in 
use in large numbers. He admits that his present 
machine (which, he says, has 80 square meters, or 762 
square feet, of supporting surface) is somewhat in- 
efficient, but he thinks that others will soon be built 
intended for higher speed and which, with greater 
horse-power and less supporting surface, will be cap- 
able of transporting individuals quickly from place lo 
place. He says that the only danger to be feared is 
breakage of the rudder, and he seems to forget alto- 



November 24, 1906. 



Scientific American, 



379 



gether that if the motor stops, the aeroplane will im- 
mediately settte down upon terra firma. In his en- 
thusiasm the Brazilian aeronaut forgets also that at 
least three experimenters in America (Herring in 
1898, Whitehead in 1901, and Wright brothers in 1903), 
Maxim in England (1896), and Ader in France (1897), 
have already flown for short distances with motor- 
driven aeroplanes, and yet no really practical machine 
of the kind has as yet been produced and demonstrat- 
ed. Langley's experiments showed which was the 
most efficient shape of plane, and how much a given- 
sized plane would lift at different speeds; but with 
all this data to build upon, no one has produced an 
automatically stable machine, i. e., one with which the 
occupant has only to run the engine and to steer. 

In view of these facts, we do not look for the sud- 
den perfection of the aeroplane flying machine. The 
public successful flight of Santos Dumont will increase 
the interest in such machines, and stimulate inventors 
to further research and experiment in the science of 
dynamic flight without buoyant gases. 

t in t 

WHAT DO THE BIRDS EAT? 

BY HELEN LUKENS GAUT. 

In order to determine the harmful or beneficial re- 
lations of birds to agriculture, horticulture, and all 
plant life, a remarkable work is being carried forward 
by Prof. F. E. L. Beal, who is in charge of the Divi- 
sion of Economic Ornithology of the Biological Sur- 
vey, "United States Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington, D. C. Prof. Beal has alone examined over 
thirty thousand bird stomachs, the greatest work of 
the kind ever accomplished by a single man, while 
his assistants have examined an equal number, making 
over sixty thousand in all. A seemingly endless task 
it is, investigating with a microscope each minute par- 
ticle in each of these thousands of stomachs, yet all 
this has been accomplished in a period of seventeen 
years. When one considers that to do this intelligent- 
ly and successfully requires a thorough knowledge of 
the anatomy of bugs and insects, and a familiarity 
with characteristics of the seeds of both domestic and 
wild plants, the labor assumes formidable proportions 
to the uninitiated. To increase their knowledge, work- 
ers in this line must spend much time in woods, gar- 
dens, and fields, studying hundreds of species of in- 
sects, worms, and bugs. The results of these investi- 
gations, which are invaluable to science, and of great 
practical importance to the American farmer, have led 
to a movement that can intelligently favor the increase 
of such bird species as are best adapted to preserve 
the. proper balance of nature, and reduce the number 
of those that prey too greatly on the products of or- 
chard and field. Ornithologists from all parts of the 
country, and in many instances special field agents 
who have been engaged for the purpose, forward great 
numbers of bird stomachs to the department, and thus 
aid in the practical and scientific research. 

It is difficult, almost impossible, to determine what 
a bird eats by his actions, as he frequently goes 
through all the motions of eating a hearty meal with- 
out taking a thing. The "proof of the pudding" is 
found in the bird's stomach. If he is loaded with 
garden seeds, cultivated fruits, or beneficial insects 
(parasites on other insects), he is relegated to the 
black list; but if examination reveals a goodly num- 
ber of bugs, worms, and insects that are injurious to 
plant life, he is hoisted high upon the pedestal of use- 
fulness, and woe betide the human who does him 
bodily injury, or tries to besmirch his character. 

The contents of a bird's stomach consist of a pul- 
verized, soggy mass, and it is necessary to separate and 
study each minute particle in order to determine to 
what species of fruit or insect it. belongs. Caterpillars 
are sometimes recognized by their skins, always by 
their jaws, and the tiny chitinous plates that surround 
the breathing holes. The presence of ants and wasps 
is discovered by the hard thorax, spiders by their man- 
dibles, and sometimes by their eyes, which sparkle In 
the. stomach mass like rubies. Angleworms have hard, 
indigestible spicules, which project from their sides. 
Beetles have fierce bony jaws, grasshoppers hard man- 
dibles and tiny leg-armor plates, and so on through 
the entire insect world. The greatest difficulty is ex- 
perienced in determining the species of fruit found in 
stomachs. Usually it is crushed, and if it contains no 
seed, the only method of examination available for 
the investigators is to place particles of skin under a 
microscope and discover the texture. Grain can be 
recognized by the shape of the starch granules when 
other methods fail. 

"Most astonishing things have been found in the 
stomachs of birds, everything but diamonds," says 
Prof. Beal. "A bird stomach which had been kept in 
alcohol for two years, waiting its turn to be examined, 
contained poison oak berries, which are the favorite 
food of many birds. The man who examined this 
stomach was badly poisoned. Vicious and deadly-poi- 
son spiders constitute a favorite bird food. " The mere 
touch of a blister beetle would scorch the flesh of a 
human, yet in the stomach of one king bird, fourteen 
of these fiery creatures were discovered. Caterpillars 



with stinging spines, beetles with acrid secretions that 
are bitter and burning, bugs with an odor so fierce that 
a skunk is fragrant in comparison, and fruit bitter and 
rasping as quinine, and thousands of other obnoxious 
things, are consumed greedily by the feathered throng." 
While sojourning in some localities, certain species 
may do inestimable damage to crops, after which they 
migrate to other fields, where they charm with their 
sweet music, their good nature, and their innocent 
and harmless demeanor. For instance, the bobolink 
ravages the rice fields of the South, annually destroy- 
ing millions of dollars' worth of rice; then, as if re- 
morseful, he wings his way to the North, where he is 
thoroughly well-behaved, where, with his sweet voice, 
immaculate decorum, and his propensity for eating 
bugs and other insects injurious to crops, he earns an 
enviable reputation. But after the fashion of "Jekyl 
and Hyde," his methods change with abruptness, and 
he becomes an incarnate fiend when he returns to the 
southern rice fields. So great a pest is he to the 
planters, that in one season 2,500 pounds of gunpowder 
were used on one plantation in an attempt to reduce 
his numbers. 

After examining hundreds of linnet stomachs, the 
investigators have passed the verdict that this bird 
is an abominable pest, with but few redeeming quali- 
ties. He ignores insects that are injurious to plant 
life, and gleans his living by robbing the wealth of 
orchard and field. He works with systematic energy, 
defoliating trees, eating fruit, and scratching up seed. - 
He is a cheery, well-groomed little fellow, but he is 
wicked, deserving all the bad names and gunshot be- 
stowed upon him. Birds are most seriously harmful 
to crops when a single species is super-abundant in a 
certain locality, and there is no remedy other than 
an unsparing use of powder and shot, else orchards 
will be devastated, the labor and hopes of the farmer 
be lost, and families left financially destitute. 

Crows do immense damage in New England corn 
fields, and about the only method of protection is to 
tar the corn before it is planted. The efficiency of 
this scheme was demonstrated by Prof. Beal, who 
planted several acres to corn. Toward the end of the 
planting the supply of tar ran out, and he was com- 
pelled to finish without it. The areas planted to tarred 
corn were ignored by the crows, while the untarred 
patch furnished a glorious picnic ground for the 
croaking banqueters. Though crows are ravenous 
corn eaters, it is stated that this fault is more than 
counteracted by their usefulness in destroying harm- 
ful insects. In one crow's stomach the investigators 
found the mandibles of ninety grasshoppers, showing 
that these birds are partial to such food. Robins steal 
fruit with a vengeance, and many an eastern farmer 
has been near distraction because of the ravages of 
these birds. It has been discovered, however, that 
they prefer wild fruit, and that whenever it is obtain- 
able they scorn fruit that is useful to man. In the 
stomachs of three hundred robins were found the 
seeds of forty-two species of wild fruits, and only four 
or five domestic. Because of this preference, the de- 
partment suggests that wild fruits be planted in close 
proximity to orchards, so that birds may be attracted 
and kept out of mischief. As many of these wild 
growths are ornamental, the advantages of having 
them about would be doubled. 

Woodpeckers are both harmful and useful. The 
good they do is in excess of the injury. Flickers 
thrive on ants. In a single stomach were found five 
thousand of these little pests. The ants best liked 
by the flickers are those that befriend plant lice, carry- 
ing them from one growth to another, as each becomes 
defoliated. The red-bellied woodpecker, common in 
the north of Pennsylvania, causes some disturbance 
in the orange groves of Florida by pecking holes in 
the ripe fruit. The yellow-bellied woodpeckers, indi- 
genous to the northern part of the United States and 
the Alleghany Mountains, have an exasperating trick 
of girdling trees, and pecking holes in the trunks in 
order to obtain a sap that exudes from the bruises. 
They also eat tnsects that become imprisoned in the 
glutinous sap. 

On expanding leaves and flower buds plant lice ac- 
cumulate, and most of the warblers perform a work 
of benevolence for the farmer by going over orchards 
systematically, and gleaning the offensive and de- 
structive insects. They are indefatigable insect ex- 
terminators, and are of great value to the world of 
agriculture. Meadow larks and cuckoos are helpful, 
and have no black marks against their names in the 
ornithological records. The worst insect enemies of 
the fruit grower are caterpillars, cankerworms, fall 
webworms, tussock moths, and codling moths. All 
these creatures the cuckoos dispose of with gusto and 
dispatch. Few other birds will eat the hairy cater- 
pillars, because the stiff hairs pierce the inner lining 
of most bird stomachs, and produce discomfort. But 
the cuckoo experiences no bad result, though some- 
times his stomach is completely furred with these 
hairs. As the food rotates in the stomach, these hairs 
are brushed round and round like the silk nap of a 
silk hat In the stomach of one cuckoo the r&- 



mains of two hundred and fifty tent caterpillars were 
found. Bushtits and other small birds are found 
invaluable for ridding orchards of scales and minute 
insects that destroy the value of crops. The micro- 
scopic eyes of these birds detect the tiniest insect eggs 
and every species of life, and they perform tasks in 
insect extermination that would be impossible £or 
man. It is said they can be attracted to orchards by 
hanging meat on trees. 

Hawks and owls are useful to orchardists, for they 
prey on gophers, ground squirrels, field mice, rabbits, 
and many other rodents that do great mischief in 
girdling trees and stealing seeds. True, these birds 
sometimes feed on small birds and poultry, but their 
chief food consists of harmful rodents. This was 
proved by examining two' hundred and seventy stom- 
achs. Out of the seventy-three species of these birds 
to be found in the United States, only six were found 
to be really harmful. Some States have offered boun- 
ties on hawks and owls, while rabbits are allowed to 
go their mischievous way unmolested. Rabbits are 
found to be of more harm to farmers than they are 
of value as food. Owls and hawks are helpful, and it 
has been suggested that the bounty be placed on the 
head of the erring rabbit, and removed from those of 
the enterprising birds. 

«'H» 

SCIENCE NOTES. 

Free ammonia in water always indicates organic 
matter in the process of decomposition. In polluted 
surface waters it is rarely high, being removed almost 
as fast as formed by vegetable and animal organisms 
in the water, and an amount of nitrogen as free am- 
monia above 0.05 milligramme per liter is unusual, 
and if it does occur the water cannot be considered as 
an unpolluted water unless that fact is clearly estab- 
lished by other data. 

According to the recent experiments which have 
been made by Prof. Niccolo Vaccaro, connected with 
the physical department of the University of Genoa, 
relating to the spectrum of nitrogen in a magnetic 
field, he finds that when applying the field so that the 
lines of force run transversely through the tube con- 
taining the rarefied nitrogen, in which the electrodes 
for the discharge are placed at each end of the tube, 
the phenomena vary to a considerable degree accord- 
ing to the pressure in the tube, the latter being con- 
nected to an air-pump. The present researches, which 
were made with considerable detail, show in general 
that when using pressures which are relatively high, 
the spectrum in the tube of rarefied gas increases both 
in luminous effect and in the number of lines under 
the influence of the magnetic field. But for very low 
pressures the effect is seen to be clearly inverted, and 
the magnetic field has a weakening effect. He finds 
that there is a critical point at which no effect is 
observed from the field, and this is at a pressure of 
0.02 inch of mercury in the tube. At this point the 
magnetic field has no appreciable influence upon the 
spectrum of the rarefied gas. 

A French chemist, h. Ouvrard, has formed a series 
of new compounds, the boro-stannates of the alka- 
line earths. He has also succeeded in reproducing the 
mineral nordenskioldine by artificial means. Re- 
searches upon the metallic borates led him to form the 
boro-stannates by different methods, and among these 
is the boro-stannate of calcium, which is identical with 
the above-mentioned mineral. First, he tried by fu- 
sion, in chloride of calcium, of a mixture of boric acid 
or borate of lime and broxide of tin. Here the reac- 
tion is not decisive, and no doubt there results a 
chloro-borate. A better method is to mix in a platinum 
trough, the precipitated borate of lime, corresponding 
nearly to CaO, 2B,,0„ with a small quantity of broxide 
of tin coming from the calcination of meta-stannic 
acid. The trough is placed in a porcelain tube and 
brought to a white heat, while passing a slow current 
of hydrochloric acid vapor. After three-quarters of an 
hour he finds a melted opaque mass, covered with 
hexagonal scales, some of which are also deposited 
upon the trough. These scales, when isolated, are 
found to be the boro-stannate of calcium B^O;,, SnO., 
CaO. This body is colorless and transparent, and not 
easily melted. It scarcely dissolves in hydrochloric 
acid, even when concentrated. The crystalline scales 
are fragile, with a glassy lustre, and resemble the 
natural mineral. Some of the largest ones are 0.05 
inch wide and 0.0004 thick. This compound is identi- 
cal with the mineral nordenskioldine, which was de- 
scribed by Briigger in 1887. By an analogous process, 
he was able to form the corresponding compounds of 
strontium and barium. These, however, are more dif- 
ficult to produce. Using as above a current of gaseous 
hydrochloric acid at a red heat he obtains some scales 
of boro-stannates mixed with numerous crystals of 
casserite. By reacting upon stannic chloride the re- 
sults are generally better, and he was able to form the 
new compounds of barium and strontium in a nearly 
pure state. These are crystalline bodies having about 
the same appearance as the calcium compound. 



38o 



Scientific American 



November 24, 1906. 



COOKING WITHOUT FIRE. 

BY GEORGE J. JONES. 

The flreless cookstove is not exactly a new thing, 
for its economies and conveniences have been known 
to the people of an out-of-the-way portion of the Ger- 
man empire. Only a year or two ago some ladies of 
that country had their attention attracted to the tire- 
less cookstove, and they became so interested in it that 
an organization was effected for the purpose of making 
the women of the country generally familiar 
with it. In this manner one of the United 
States representatives in Germany heard of 
the scheme, and reported on it. This at- 
tracted general attention in this country, 
and the supply of government pamphlets 
was soon exhausted. 

The system is based on the fact that a 
perfectly insulated vessel containing meat 
or vegetables and a proper supply of water 
will continue to cook for a long while after 
Once having been brought to the boiling 
point. The operation of cooking proceeds 
just the same as if it were directly over the 
fire, except that it is much slower. 

This apparatus was known as the hay box 
In Germany, and consisted of a crudely con- 
structed box, which was insulated in that it 
was lined with some cloth or other material 
which happened to be convenient and then 
filled with hay. The article to be cooked 
was placed over a fire for a short time, a 
minute or two, and then quickly transferred 
to the hay box, where it was placed in a 
sort of a pocket made in the hay. Here the 
cooking continued slowly without any fur- 
ther application of heat or any attention. 

The subject was called to the attention of 
the President, and he directed that the^ hay 
box be experimented with by the Commissary 
Department. This was done at Port Riley, 
Kansas, under the direction of Oapt. M. S. Murray with 
the assistance of Latrobe Bromwell, instructor of the 
school of army cooks at that place. These experiments 
were very successful, and the scheme was heartily in- 
dorsed. A box suitable for army use has been de- 
signed, and it is likely some great changes in the con- 
duct of the company kitchen are about to be made. 

This method of food preparation has been recently 
made available for domestic use by the introduction of 
the cooking cabinet. In the main this is nothing more 
or less than a well-constructed box of oak, thoroughly 
insulated to keep in the heat. It is thirty-six inches 
long, fifteen wide, and seventeen deep. It is equipped 
with three enamel vessels of a construction especially 
designed for this character of work, having covers 
which are clamped on to further facilitate the reten- 
tion of the heat. The lids of these vessels are held 
on by a revolving bar-lock device, which not only 
makes a hermetically tight joint, but also acts as a 
handle. One of these three vessels is of eight quarts 
capacity, and the other two four quarts each. After 
the viands in the kettle have been 
exposed to the heat of the stove 
until boiling has taken place for 
a minute or so, the lid is clamped 
into place, and the whole pot 
transferred to one of the pockets 
of the cooker. 

The actual time consumed in 
the preparation of food by this 
process is about double that or- 
dinarily required, but the food 
may be left in very long and will 
not be overdone. The saving of 
fuel resulting from the use of the 
cooker is considerable, and the 
burdens of the housewife are 
about halved. 



maximum distance between the first step and the car 
platform be 15 inches, with a minimum distance of 
12; and that the maximum distance between the car 
platform and the top of the floor of the car be 10 
inches, with a minimum distance of 8. "It is the 
opinion of the committee that an ideal condition would 
call for a height of 17 inches from top of rail to the 
first step, and from the first step to the platform, 14 
inches, and from the platform to the floor of car, 10 




of the jar, pour an equal amount of hydrochloric acid, 
under the water, as shown in Fig. 1, until the water 
rises to the top of the jar. If no effort be made to 
mix the two liquids they will remain neatly separated 
for days, the density of commercial hydrochloric acid 
being greater than that of water. Let an egg sink 
gently into the water. It will pass through it, reach 
the hydrochloric acid zone, and there almost instan- 
taneously become covered with a thick layer of bub- 
bles. These decrease its density and pre- 
vent its farther downward progress. The 
egg does not come up to the top, however, 
but settles on the dividing line between the 
two liquids. There it begins to revolve 
slowly around its greater axis, and will keep 
up that queer motion for more than an hour. 
The bubbles on the top of the egg gradually 
dissolve in the water, while they increase at 
the bottom, which is nearer the acid. The 
double process continually raises the center 
of gravity of the egg, and its rotation is due 
to this continued alteration. 



Latest Form of the Fireless Cooker. 

inches,, making a total distance from top of rail to 
floor of car, 41 inches. It is also recommended that 
the tread of all steps be not less than 10 inches." 



A CURIOUS CHEMICAL EXPERIMENT. 

BY GUSTAV MICHAUD, D.8C. 

To keep an egg continually rotating in the midst 
of a liquid mass, without ever allowing it to come up 
to the surface or to fall down to the bottom, is a 
feat which does not seem easy to perform. Owing to 
a peculiarity of the composition of the shell the ex- 
periment is easily made, "and will afford entertain- 
ment as well as impart some knowledge. 

The eggshell contains a considerable amount of 
calcium carbonate, and will evolve carbon dioxide gas 
when submerged in a solution of hydrochloric acid. 
The reaction differs, however, from that which takes 
place under similar circumstances with ordinary lime- 
stone; the organic matter which enters in the com- 
position of the shell causes most of the gaseous bub- 
bles to remain attached to the egg. They increase its 



Steps of Trolley Cars. 

A recent number of the Elec- 
trical World says that the New 
York State Board of Railroad 
Commissioners has received many 
complaints from women in ref- 
erence to the excessive height of 
the car steps on the street sur- 
face roads in that State. It was 
decided by the Commission that 
a remedy could be more quickly 
obtained by a conference with the 
managers of the different roads 
than by recommendations to indi- 
vidual companies against whom the complaints have 
been received. For this reason the matter was brought 
to the attention of the New York State Street Railway 
Association, which at its last convention appointed a 
committee to consider the subject. This committee has 
reported . to the Association that the preferable maxi- 
mum height between the top of the rail and the first 
step of all cars of the box type with 33-inch wheel is 
18 inches, with a minimum height of 14; that the 




Chinese Wood Oil. 
Investigations by W. B. Hemsley at the 
Kew Herbarium (Bull. Kew Gardens) have 
led him to the conclusion that the wood oil, 
or "tung oil" of China, which it has hereto- 
fore been supposed was obtained from the 
seed of Aleurites cordata. is not derived 
from that species, but from another, to 
which he has given the name of Aleurites 
fordii, Hemsl., and has figured in Hooker 1 
Icones Plantarum, t.t. 2,801 and 2,802. In 
this species the flowers are developed be- 
fore the entire leaves, the styles are shortly 
bifid, and the apiculate capsule is not wrin- 
kled. It is found in the Chinese provinces 
of Chekiang, Kiangsi, Fokien, Hupeh, and 
Yunnan. Aleurites cordata, R.Br., is, how- 
ever, found in Japan, Formosa, Hainan, and Tonking, 
but apparently does not occur on the mainland of 
China. It has narrower petals, deeply divided styles 
and a wrinkled fruit. Shirasawa, Iconographie des 
Essences Forestieres, vol. I., p. 93, treats this as a 
cultivated tree of Japan. Aleurites triloba, Forst., 
occurs in Malaya and Polynesia, and is naturalized in 
many other tropical countries. The seeds of a fourth 
species, A. trisperma, Blanco, were imported into 
Liverpool in 1891 and 1897 under the name of "Balu- 
cang," and are so much like those of A. cordata that 
they have been mistaken for them. There is no doubt 
that A. cordata yields a similar oil (probably in 
Japan and Cochin China). According to Dr. A. Henry, 
Aleurites fordii succeeds best in barren, rocky places 
where farming cannot be carried on, the soil being 
very thin. It grows where the temperature rises to 
100 deg. F. in July, and where the snow lies on the 
ground for days in winter, but where severe frosts 
are unknown. It succeeds also in tropical regions. 
The oil is made in two qualities; the kind usually ex- 
ported is cold-drawn. It is used 
in central China for varnishing, 
and for lighting purposes. The 
inferior quality, which does not 
appear to be exported, is extracted 
by heat and pressure, and is 
thick, blackish, and opaque. It is 
used for making putty for calk- 
ing boats, etc. The wood oil is 
said to be sometimes adulterated 
with oil expressed from the seeds 
of a kind of soy bean, Glycino his- 
jida, Max., which seriously af- 
fects its drying properties. 



Fig. 1, 



Fig. 2. 



HOW TO KEEP AN EGG CONTINUALLY IN ROTATION IN A LIQUID WITHOUT ALLOWING 

IT TO RISE TO THE SURFACE. 



bulk, and hinder the contact of the acid with the shell 
to such an extent that a solution which would in a 
few minutes consume a piece of marble the size of a 
nut, takes several hours to dissolve the thin shell of 
an egg. The phenomenon is most interesting to ob- 
serve when produced by means of the following ap- 
paratus: 

Take a glass jar and half fill it with water. Then, 
by means of a glass tube which reaches to the bottom 



Timber Testing at Purdue. 

A long series of experiments has 
been completed at Purdue Uni- 
versity affecting certain processes 
to increase the life, strength, and 
physical qualities of timber. 
These processes are regarded 
necessary because of the steady 
diminution of the timber supply. 
The feeling is prevalent that 
everything possible should be 
done to increase the durability of 
the timber that is now being used 
for various purposes. The ex- 
periments at Purdue have been 
made chiefly in the interests of 
railroads by making mechanical 
tests of the ties treated by different processes. Over 
400 ties were used, and upward of 600 tests were made. 
The timber-testing laboratory at Purdue is the one 
used by the government at the St. Louis Exposition. 



There are now over 700 motor omnibuses owned by 
London companies. According to the Commercial 
Motor, 469 of these were in service on October 4th, 
over 200 being in the repairers' hands. 



November 24, 1906. 



Scientific American 



$&t 



A NSW APPARATUS FOB THE COALING OF 
WARSHIPS. 

BT OUR BERLIN CORRESPONDENT. 

An apparatus for the coaling of warships on the 
high sea, based on the principle of the Miller appa- 
ratus used in the American navy, has been recently 
invented by Georg Leue, a Charlottenburg engineer, 
and has just been submitted to severe tests in the 
German navy. The apparatus comprises: 1, an end- 
less rope for transferring coal bags from 
one ship to another; 2, a "compensator" 
station; 3, a reversing station; 4, a "com- 
pensator" to account for the variable 
position of the endless' rope; 5, a driving 
mechanism connected with the compen- 
sator, to move the end of the rope; 6, 
the "elevator" installed on the coal ship, 
which lifts the sacks up to the ropeway; 
7, a slipping device for throwing off the 
end of the rope in case the towing rope 
should break, or when the coaling is fin- 
ished; 8, the sack hooks with the sacks; 
9, the chutes on which the sacks slide 
down upon the deck. 

In starting the apparatus, the towing 
rope is first brought out, after which the 
endless rope is reeved. The slip rope is 
passed over to the other ship and fast- 
ened there to a block. The proper sag 
of the endless rope is next fixed by eas- 
ing off the towing rope, and the motive 
agent (compressed air, steam, or water) 
admitted to the compensator, thus stiff- 
ening the endless rope. The driving 
motor is next started, when the rope, 
and with it the elevator, begins to run, 
and the whole outfit will be ready for 
operation. 

The sacks, provided with hooks, are 
hung on the elevator installed on board 
the collier, and after having been raised, 
remain firmly attached to the rope. 
During the rotation of the endless 
rope they arrive at the mast of the 
other ship, and there are automatically 
detached from the rope, falling into the 
chute and sliding down upon the deck, 
where they ase emptied. Several empty 
sacks having been put into another emp- 
ty sack, are conveyed back to the coal- 
ship on the endless rope. 

Owing to the motion of the ships and 
of the sea, the tension of the towing rope 
is submitted to great variations. The 
conveying j-ope connecting the two ships 
would share this movement even in an 
increased measure, so as to render any hauling im- 
possible. To obviate this drawback and to maintain 
the proper tautness of the conveying rope, there has 
been provided the apparatus called the "compensator." 
This is of a similar construction to a tackle, and re- 
leases the rope by a multiple of the distance to which 
the pulleys approach each other, drawing it in in a 
similar manner by a multiple of the distance to which 
the pulleys are drawn away from each other. The 
pulley systems are united by cylinders sliding inside 
one another and in 
the interior of 
which a certain 
pressure is main- 
tained, counteract- 
ing the tension in 
the rope. If this 
tension augments, 
air escapes through 
a maximum valve, 
and the systems of 
pulleys approach 
one another until 
the pressure and 
tension accurately 
counterbalance each 
other, while just 
the opposite pro- 
cess takes place 
when the ten- 
sion in the rope is 
lessened. The appa- 
ratus thus tightens 
or relaxes the rope 
to the extent of 200 
feet and more. If 
the towing rope 

should break, the endless rope is thrown off automat- 
ically, as the slip rope being tightened actuates the 
releasing mechanism of the reversing pulley, tilting 
this over, so that the rope springs out of it and is also 
thrown out at the reversing station. The rope itself 
falls into the water, whence it is withdrawn. The 
ships then are quite separated. 

After the coaling is finished, the endless rope can 
also be thrown off by hand, by pulling at the slip 



rope. As the stations on the mast adjust themselves 
automatically to the relative position of the ship, 
shee rings up to 45 deg. in either direction are of no 
influence whatsoever on the working of the apparatus. 
An interesting series of trials was carried out in 
February last in the German navy between the ar- 
mored cruiser "Prinz Heinrich" and the collier 
"Hermann Sauber," chartered by Mr. Leue. On Feb- 
ruary 17, while there was little wind and a smooth 




Placing 1 the Bags on the Conveyor. 

sea, as much as 56 tons of coal per hour were trans- 
ferred to the "Prinz Heinrich," which towed the 
collier at a speed of 11 knots per hour. The weight 
of each coal sack was 250 pounds. On the 22d of 
February these experiments were continued in very 
bad weather with a strong gale and very rough sea, 
during rain arid snow storms, while the ships were 
sailing at the same rate of 11 knots per hour. During 
the first two hours 105 tons of coal were transferred 
to the "Prinz Heinrich," which figure, according to 



Who Owns the Prescription ? 

In certain States where prohibition laws are in 
force the pharmacist is compelled under penalty to 
retain prescriptions for spirituous liquors and to re- 
frain from refilling them; and in one or more other 
States this restriction is applied also to morphine and 
cocaine. 

Now, the pharmacy law of Rhode Island (unless it 
has been recently amended in this particular) re- 
quires the retention of the prescription by 
the dispenser, but it also provides that a 
copy of it must be furnished free of ex- 
pense to either the writer, or the "pur- 
chaser" of it, whenever demanded. With 
these exceptions there are no statutes 
which bear on the subject. 

The Rhode Island law, it will be noted, 
while it makes the dispenser the cus- 
todian of the prescription, does not pre- 
vent the patient from still making use 
of it — the copy is, of course, practically 
the same thing as the original. 

Magistrates have decided the question 
of ownership both ways; and there have 
been rumors from time to time of deci- 
sions by the higher courts settling the 
matter, but there is no such decision on 
record; and although the subject has 
been discussed with considerable fre- 
quency, no one has yet given us a refer- 
ence to one. 

Usage favors the pharmacist in this 
country as being the proper custodian of 
the prescription, but abroad this is quite 
the reverse. If a customer demanded 
from a pharmacist the return of a pre- 
scription which had been retained by 
him, a successful legal resistance of this 
demand might turn somewhat on the 
motive of the refusal. If it were shown 
that the pharmacist was in the habit, as 
is usually the case, of refilling prescrip- 
tions at the request of the patient, and 
that consequently his refusal was not a 
matter of public policy — an effort to pro- 
tect the ignorant from the dangers of 
self-prescribing' — but merely intended to 
compel future custom, a court and jury 
would not be likely to sustain his re- 
fusal. 

In view of the many evils resulting 
from the application of medical advice 
intended for one condition to another 
perhaps totally different — even extending 
to the "lending" of prescriptions to sick 
friends — it would be to the advantage of 
the community if the refilling of prescriptions without 
the authority of the physician could be prevented. 
Perhaps this could be constitutionally done by law on 
the ground stated, but until it is, the patient will have 
rather the stronger side when there is a dispute about 
ownership. — The Druggists Circular and Chemical Ga- 
zette. 




The German Armored Cruiser " Prinz Heinrich " Coaling at 
A NEW APPARATUS FOR THE COALING OF WARSHIPS. 



the opinion of experts, might however have been eas- 
ily increased up to 60 tons and more per hour, had 
there been a greater number of sacks and more men 
available on board the warship, so as to allow the ar- 
riving sacks to be more rapidly emptied. 

The apparatus, from the time the rope was shot off 
until the first full sack of coal was transported, was 
got into working order within 24 minutes. This has 
not been approached by previous inventors. 



A motor-driven rail mill is in operation at the 
Edgar Thomson plant of the Carnegie Steel Company 

at Bessemer, Pa. 
It is equipped with 
two 1,500 - horse- 
power, 30-pole, 220- 
volt, direct-current 
motors overcom- 
pounded 15 per 
cent, which oper- 
ate at from 100 to 
125 revolutions per 
minute. Each mo- 
tor carries a 125,- 
000-pound cast- 
steel segmental fly- 
wheel which re- 
lieves it from the 
extreme shocks of 
rolling. The power 
delivered by each 
motor ranges from 
950 to 1,450 horse- 
power in rolling 
rails, with occasi- 
onal jumps to 
1,700 horse-power; 
the friction load 
on the mill run- 
ning light is estimated at about 500 horse-power. 

* 1 « ■ * ■ 

A wind pressure of 30 pounds per square foot is 
specified in the New York building laws for buildings 
more than 100 feet high, with an allowable unit stress 
of 50 per cent more than for dead or live loads. Fow- 
ler gives 20 pounds for buildings less than 20 feet 
high and 30 pounds for buildings 60 feet high; with 
no extra allowable unit stress. 



Sea. 



382 



Scientific American 



November 24, 1906. 



BLASTING OUT A REEF IN NEW YORK HARBOR. 

Some few years ago, when the cruiser "Brooklyn" 
was passing through the fairway to the southwest of 
the Battery, the ship being fully equipped with stores, 
etc., and therefore at her maximum draft, she grounded 
quite hepvily upon some obstruction, and received in- 
juries which necessitated her docking at the Brooklyn 
navy yard, where extensive repairs had to be made 
on her damaged bottom. 

As there was supposed to be an ample depth of 
water at this point, it was presumed that the ship had 
struck some sunken barge or vessel, of which no rec- 
ord had been kept. Subsequent examination of the 
locality, however, developed the surprising fact that 
at this point there was a reef of rocks where the 
channel shoaled from its normal depth of 40 to 45 
feet to a least observed depth of 28.6 feet at mean 
low water. . Complete soundings were made of the 
reef, and its contours established. The projecting 
mass of rock, which is of the same gneiss which under- 
lies New York city, was found to vary from 32 feet 
in length by 25 feet in width at the 30-foot depth, to 
200 feet in length by 77 f«et in width at the depth of 
40 feet, where the total area was found to be about 
10,160 square feet and the total amount of rock to be 
removed was estimated at 1,450 cubic yards. Tenders 
for the removal of the rock were invited, and the 
contract was let to J. B. Miller, of this city, to whom 
we. are indebted for assistance in the preparation of 
the present article. 

The task of removing the rock is rendered un- 
usually difficult by the depth of the water and the 
velocity of the currents, which vary from 5 to 6 
miles per hour. Furthermore, the blasting and dredg- 
ing operations have to be carried on at one of the 
busiest points in New York harbor. The reef is about 
1,000 feet south by west from Pier A at the entrance 
of the North River, where it lies in the track of both 
the incoming and outgoing traffic from the North 
River docks and also directly in the way of the even 
heavier traffic which passes around the Battery be- 
tween the North and East rivers. The most difficult 
task was that of drilling, and to expedite this work 
the contractor devised the movable platform which 
forms the subject of our front-page illustration. It 
consists of four massive spuds, each measuring 16 x 16 
inches on the side, and 60 feet in length. These 
are pointed at the bottom, and weighted with iron in 
order to overcome the buoyancy of the timber at the 
greater depths. The working platform is carried upon 
four movable spud boxes, which are built of 4-inch 
yellow pine, strongly bolted together and adapted to 
slide vertically upon the spuds. A heavy framing of 
4x6 waling pieces connects the spud boxes at their 
upper and lower edges, and upon the lower framing is 
laid the working platform from which the drills are 
operated. The platform is supported upon the spuds 
by means of 1%-inch steel pins, which are placed in 
holes bored through the spuds. Prom this description 
it will be seen that the contractor had at his disposal 
a platform whose legs could be readily adjusted to the 
uneven surface of the reef. 

The drilling was done by a 5%i-inch Ingersoll special 
submarine drill, steam being supplied from a scow 
moored alongside the working platform. When opera- 
tions first started, it was found that the rush of the 
tides was so swift that the steel drill was bent as 
much as 7 inches out of line by the pressure. This 
condition was met by providing a heavy telescopic 
cast-iron pipe, which varied from a diameter of 4 
inches at the bottom to 12 inches at the platform. 
The pipe was lowered down to the rock, and provided 
a shield within which the drill -was operated without 
any further trouble from deflection. 

The current was found to be strongest on the last 
of the ebb tide after heavy storms of rain, when spe- 
cial precautions had to be taken to keep the platform 
in its proper working position. Because of the heavy 
current, the diver was able to go down only at slack 
tide, which he did for the purpose of locating and 
charging the holes. When it became necessary to 
shift the platform, a scow was first floated between 
the spuds to receive the weight of the platform. The 
derrick then took hold of the four corners of the 
frame and lifted the weight off the pins, which were 
removed and the platform was lowered down on the 
scow. 

The pins were then placed in the holes above the 
frame, and as the scow rose with the tide, it lifted 
the platform and spuds, and was moved with its load 
to the new position. Here the platform was lowered, 
and the spuds allowed to settle to their bearings, after 
which the pins were inserted, the scow floated out, 
and the platform was left in position for further drill- 
ing. 

The work, which was started in the summer of 
1905, has been delayed by various collisions which 
have wrecked the platform and necessitated repairs; 
but it is expected that the whole of the reef will have 
been blasted out and dredged away by the spring of 
next year, leaving everywhere a uniform depth of 40 
feet at mean low water. 



The Aeronautical Congress of 1906. 

BY OUR BERLIN CORRESPONDENT. 

An International Aeronautical Congress is being 
held at Berlin in connection with the twenty-fifth an- 
niversary of the Berlin Aeronautical Association. 
While the first day of the congress was given up to 
the novel military sport of balloon hunting by means 
of automobiles, the second day was devoted to lectures. 

Prof. Hergesell, of Strasburg, lectured on Studying 
the Atmosphere Above the Sea by means of bal- 
loons and kites. That old children's toy, the kite, has 
been developed into a most valuable instrument for 
scientific research. The • first attempts made in this 
connection above land were extended to successful 
investigations of the atmosphere above the sea, by 
starting a captive kite from a vessel. The first more 
extensive trials were carried out from the imperial 
dispatch boat "Sleipner" and from the yacht of the 
Prince of Monaco. Great difficulties, however, were 
encountered in investigating the trade winds by means 
of kites, the raising of the latter up to a height of 
13,120 feet requiring many hours. Another drawback 
in investigating the direction and speed of the winds 
in any region was found in the fact that the proper 
velocity of the wind at great heights is apt to be con- 
cealed by the winds set up by the motion of the vessel. 
These difficulties were done away with by using re- 
cording or sounding balloons, the ascension of which 
was found to be most rapid, and which readily reached 
heights of 5,248 and even 5,904 feet, while indicating 
the direction and speed of winds as faithfully as the 
moisture of the atmosphere. Special difficulties were, 
however, met with in the polar regions in which re- 
cording balloons have been sent up as far north as 81 
deg. northern latitude. 

Two recording balloons are generally connected to- 
gether by a cable about 164 feet in length, from the 
center of which another cable branches about 80 feet, 
carrying the apparatus, to which another 160 feet 
of cable and finally a float are fitted. The whole sys- 
tem will rise until one of the balloons explodes, where- 
upon the other, unable to support the whole system, 
will drop until the float has reached the sea. The 
system being again in equilibrium, the balloon will 
then float at 3,280 feet above the sea, carrying the ap- 
paratus at a height of 80 feet. 

Prof. Miethe next delivered a lecture on color pho- 
tography from balloons and photography in the ser- 
vice of meteorology, and exhibited some beautiful 
specimens of colored cloud photographs. Aeronautics 
and meteorology are intimately allied, in so far as 
the former is a most efficient aid to the latter. The 
problem of taking photographs from a balloon may be 
said to be almost identical with that other problem 
of photographing clouds, in so far as the absence of 
any foreground in the picture in both cases requires 
the use of practically identical apparatus, rendering 
it possible to take the three views necessary for a 
color photograph. Colored views can be taken in a 
very small fraction of a second with the improved 
methods designed by Prof. Miethe. The views of Ber- 
lin taken from heights of 2,500 feet to 3,000 feet show 
the interest inherent even from a technical or military 
point of view to such colored balloon photographs. It 
may be said that color photography will possibly avail 
itself also of the rocket cameras which have been con- 
structed quite recently. 

Major Gross lectured on the development of motor- 
propelled airships in the twentieth century. The prob- 
lem of the dirigible airship may be said now to have 
been solved, the main drawback formerly encountered 
being the disproportionate ratio between the capacity 
of the balloon and the weight of the motor. The ex- 
periments made by Santos Dumont, who traveled 
round the Eiffel Tower, have been continued by the 
Lebaudy brothers. The mammoth airship of Count 
Zeppelin and the Parseval airship had not so far met 
with the same success as those of the French aeronauts. 
According to the lecturer, any airship should be pro- 
vided with a keel, to protect it against any rolling 
motion. Steam engines and electro-motors are unsuit- 
able for the purpose, their output being insufficient as 
compared with their weight. Explosion motors, as 
used exclusively for the purpose, are still, it is true, 
far from being perfect. Zeppelin's airship recently 
made an entirely successful ascent. 



<&0vve&p0ntlen ce* 



♦ < ■ > > 



It is reported from Paris that Prof. Behring has 
discovered a new method of sterilizing milk, without 
boiling it or destroying any of its essential principles. 
The method is based on the powerful qualities of Ger- 
man perphydrol, simply oxygenated. One gramme per 
liter of this substance is sufficient to destroy all nox- 
ious germs. Milk thus sterilized can be kept a long 
time, and is not injured by transportation, but cannot be 
drunk until it has been gently warmed and a drop of a 
catalytic substance added. Dr. Behring has proved "vat 
light has a very harmful effect on milk, whether 
sterilized hot or cold, and he recommends that it 
should be kept in a dark place or in red or green 
bottles. 



A "Rain Circle" at Niagara. 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

While at Niagara Falls the past summer, I witnessed 
arr unusual phenomenon. I was standing on the wall 
at the brink of the Canadian falls in the thick of a 
drenching mist from the tumbling waters. It was a 
spotlessly clear day, and the point where I stood was 
on a line with the sun and the center of the cloud of 
mist. Here the gorgeous rainbow that spanned the 
falls from other points of view resolved itself into a 
circle, a tangent of which passed along the wall on 
which I was standing. The iridescent circumference 
extended to the upper rim of the cloud, having an ap- 
parent diameter of fifty yards or thereabout. Here 
was a digression from the traditional rainbow, and a 
"rain circle" lit up the fog-sea with a halo of the 
most vivid and strikingly beautiful colors. Some of 
the readers of your valuable publication must have 
been witnesses to the same phenomenon. Reader. 
Montreal, November 11, 1906. 



Night Work on Panama Canal. 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

The chief difficulty with the Panama canal problem 
is the labor problem. Suggestions are sometimes 
harmless and sometimes helpful, and I therefore send 
forth this one: That the canal be built by night rather 
than by day, so as to escape the midday sun, and if 
the night air is not too miasmatic the plan would al- 
low workers to be employed that could not stand the 
tropical sun at midday. Work two relays, commenc- 
ing at 4 P. M. and working until 12 midnight, then 
the other relay, commencing at 12 midnight and work- 
ing until 8 A. M., and all resting during the heat of 
day until 4 P. M. This plan would enable the negro 
as well as hardy laborers from our cities to stand the 
climate and save to ourselves the millions that our 
government will pay out. Let the plan be tried. 
Chicago, 111., October 30, 1906. Charles Rogers. 



United States Army Erosion Experiment In 1864. 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

In your editorial of September 15, in the article on 
erosion as a detrimental factor in the rifled gun prob- 
lem, I wish to state that the proposition of Maxim, 
Vickers & Co. is untenable in practice. I will state 
that in 1864 there was issued to the infantry a lot of 
ammunition in which every tenth round consisted of 
a ball having at its base a saucer-shaped zinc plate, 
which by the impact of the charge was flattened and 
thereby wholly filled the bore of the gun. It pre- 
sumed to act as a cleaner, and it surely fulfilled its 
office, as after about ten to fifteen shots of this kind 
the best Enfield rifle was no better than an old smooth- 
bore musket, having so stripped the rifling that it was 
scarcely discernible. 

In other words, the gun was draw-bored until it was 
a smoothbore. J. R. Wilkinson, 3d U. S. A. 

Ex Reg. Artillerist, Army of the Cumberland. 
Sanger, Cal., November 17, 1906. 



The Current Supplement. 

It is generally supposed that it is necessary to go to 
the Rhine, to England, or to Italy to see the stepping 
stones which connect the past with the present; yet in 
various parts of this country we have ruins of antiqui- 
ties that reach far back, and with which romance and 
history are intimately associated. The California mis- 
sions are striking examples. Mr. Charles F. Holder 
has taken the California missions for the subject of a 
vivid illustrated article, which opens the current 
Supplement, No. 1612. Interesting from a medical 
point of view is an article on predigested and malted 
breakfast foods. Dr. J. D. Pennock gives some data 
on Mond producer-gas engines. For the purpose of 
contributing to the knowledge of an imperfectly in- 
vestigated subject, Mr. J. Alex. Smith writes on air in 
relation to the surface condensation of low-pressure 
steam. Mr. A. J. Jarman gives some valuable hints on 
gelatino-chloride emulsions for gaslight developing 
paper. It is difficult to find a square yard of soil in 
which, under proper conditions of heat and moisture, 
seeds of some kind will not grow. This curious tena- 
city of life is well discussed by Mr. Craig S. Thorns in 
four papers bearing the general title "How Seeds are 
Carried." The first of these, published in the current 
Supplement, deals with seeds that fly. Mr, C. F. Jen- 
kins's paper on single-phase electric traction is con- 
cluded. Sir William H. Preece presents a very good 
discussion- of incandescent lamps and the grading of 
voltages. The scientific investigation of automobile 
pneumatic tires is taken as a subject by the English 
correspondent of the Scientific American. Our Paris 
correspondent writes on light-weight gasoline motors 
for aeronautical work, a subject which is becoming of 
considerable importance in view of the recent develop- 
ments in aeroplane flight. Dr. H. W. Wiley's paper on 
the source of industrial alcohol is concluded. 



November 24, 1906. 



Scientific American 



383 



THE OPPOSITION OF MARS IN 1907. 

BY FREDERIC R. HONEY, TRINITY COLLEGE. 

A favorable opposition of Mars is an event which 
occurs at such rare intervals as to make it one of un- 
usual value to the astronomer. This is especially the 
case at the present time, when speculations are rife 
respecting the surface markings of this interesting 
planet. We are assured by the astronomers that some 
of them are of a permanent character, while others 
undergo periodical changes. The alternate appear- 
ance and disappearance of white patches at the polar 
regions suggest the presence of ice and snow, and 
therefore of an atmosphere, which renders life not 
only possible, but highly probable. It should be noted, 
however, that, on account of the greater distance of 
the planet from the sun, the light received by Mars 
is very much less than the earth receives, although its 
heat from recent measurements cannot be much below 
that of the earth. It should also be remembered that 
the diameter of Mars is not much greater than one- 
half that of the earth. There are indications which 
are interpreted by some as explainable by the exist- 
ence on the planet of intelligent beings. Should such 
exist, we are naturally led to reflect upon the geogra- 
phy and landscape of the planet as compared with 
those of our earth. But the purpose of this paper is 
not to discuss these speculations, but to exhibit 
graphically the peculiarly 
favorable conditions under 
which the astronomer will 
labor during the month of 
July, 1907. 

The ability to observe a 
planet satisfactorily ob- 
viously depends very much 
upon its proximity to the 
earth. The distance be- 
tween the earth and Mars 
varies between very wide 
limits. This is due to the 
great eccentricity of the 
planet's orbit, which is 
second only to that of 
Mercury. 

The accompanying draw- 
ing is a plot of the orbits 
of the earth and Mars; 
and while they are ellip- 
tical, the difference be- 
tween the lengths of the 
major and minor axes in 
each case is scarcely no- 
ticeable in a plot of these 
dimensions. But the ec- 
centricity of the orbit of 
Mars is between five and 
six times that of the earth, 
which accounts for Che 
great variation of the dis- 
tances between the two 
planets at different oppo- 
sitions. The center of the 
sun is represented at S. 
Through this point is 
drawn P A, the major axis 
of the orbit of Mars. P 
represents the perihelion, 
and A the aphelion of the 
planet. 

In order to obtain a 
clear understanding of the 
precise relation between 
these orbits, the reader 
should realize that the 

earth's orbit is represented in the plane of the paper; 
while the orbit of Mars is inclined to it at a very 
small angle (nearly 2 deg. ). That part of the orbit 
of Mars which includes aphelion, viz., b A c, is sup- 
posed to be above, while the remaining portion, viz., 
c P b, is supposed to be below the paper. The line 6 c 
is the intersection of the planes of the orbits of the 
two planets. 

The positions of the earth and Mars are represented 
at different dates beginning January 5. Straight lines 
representing the distances between them are drawn 
connecting the centers of the planets at nine corre- 
sponding dates, viz., January 5, March 2, April 27, 
June 22, July 6, 13, 20, September 14, and November 9. 
The greatest possible distance would be reached if 
Mars were at conjunction and aphelion at the same 
date. This distance, represented by d A, is equal to 
the entire diameter of the earth's orbit (=de) in- 
creased by e A. The least possible distance between 
the planets would be reached if Mars were at opposi- 
tion and perihelion on the same day, i. e., if Mars were 
at P and the earth at d. It is represented by d P, and 
is equal to the minimum distance between the sun 
and Mars (= S P) diminished by the radius of the 
earth's orbit. 

Some of the variations in the apparent diameter of 
Mars between these extreme possible positions are rep- 
resented within the plot of the earth's orbit at six 



dates of next year; and in each case the illuminated 
and shadow surfaces of the planet are indicated. The 
reader will readily determine the position of the dark 
surface prior to July 6; and will see that its position 
is changed after that date. 

If the small circle f be taken to represent Mars 
when at that conjunction which is most unfavorable 
for observation, i. e., when the earth is at d and Mars 
at A (the greatest possible distance), the circle g will 
represent him at the opposition which is most favor- 
able for this purpose, i. e., when the earth is at d and 
Mars at P (the least possible distance). The circle g 
is more than seven times the diameter of f, or more 
than fifty times the area. 

The opposition which is most unfavorable for ob- 
servation would occur if the earth were at e and Mars 
at A. In this position Mars would be represented by 
a circle a little smaller than that dated September 14 
within the plot. The reader will readily convince him- 
self of this by comparing the distances between the 
planets. The measurement e A is a little greater than 
that representing the distance between the earth and 
Mars on September 14. 

By a comparison of the dates the reader will ob- 
serve the gradual approach of the earth to Mars dur- 
ing the first six months of 1907, and their gradual sep- 
aration during the latter part of the year. On July 



observer of the peculiarly advantageous position of 
Mars relative to the earth during the month of July, 
1907. 




THE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF MARS AND THE EARTH DURING THE YEAR 1907. 

IN JULY, 



6, when opposition occurs, the sun, the earth, and 
Mars, in the plot, are in the same straight line; and 
at first sight we may be disposed to say that the mini- 
mum distance will now be reached; but on a careful 
examination we discover that, owing to the great ec^ 
centricity of the orbit of Mars, and the consequent 
diminution of his distance from the sun, the shortest 
distance from the earth will be reached a week later, 
i. e., July 13, when the earth will have gained upon 
Mars about 2% deg. On July 20 the distance between 
the planets will differ a very little from that of July 
6, when the earth will have gained nearly 5 deg. on 
Mars. During this period of two weeks, viz., from 
July 6 to 20, the apparent comparative diameter of 
the planet will be represented by the circle opposite 
the date July 6 within the plot. If we compare it with 
that marked g, we see that its diameter will not differ 
very much from that which it would attain if the 
planet should reach its apparent maximum size. The 
difference is in the proportion of 65 to 72, or about 
eight-ninths. 

An examination of the great variations in the ap- 
parent diameter of the planet, together with a con- 
sideration of the intensity of the light received and 
reflected when it is at its maximum distance from 
the sun and earth, as compared with the amount re- 
ceived and reflected when these distances are reduced 
almost to a minimum, will convince the most casual 



RAILWAY ACCIDENTS AND SURGERY. 

Despite the institution of the most elaborate precau- 
tionary and disciplinary methods, the railroad oper- 
ator, owing to the nature of his calling, is necessarily 
exposed to accidents and fatalities. According to the 
latest available returns upon this subject, no less than 
3,632 men were killed and 67,067 injured during the 
course of a year upon the railroads of the United 
States. In Great Britain the calamity returns are con- 
siderably lighter, despite the congested nature of the 
railroad traffic, the fatality roll aggregating 416 killed 
and 6,590 injured. In this country one man out of 
every 357 is killed and one in 19 injured. In Great 
Britain the percentage is considerably lower, the pro- 
portion being one in every 10,144 killed and one in 
747 injured. Upon the railroads in the latter country 
ambulance corps have been inaugurated among the 
operatives for the express purpose of succoring their 
injured comrades. The railroad operator, no matter 
in what path his duties may lie, is ever confronted by 
danger in a wide variety of forms. At the same time, 
many injuries have proved ultimately fatal, because 
of the long period of time that has elapsed between 

the time of the injury and 
the arrival of the doctor; 
whereas had first aid been 
rendered, the life might 
have been saved, or at any 
rate the extent of the in- 
jury appreciably mini- 
mized, by the successful 
prevention of subsequent 
complications. In this 
country the effect of such 
delay is particularly mark- 
ed, owing to the great dis- 
tances separating points 
at which medical aid can 
be obtained. More than 
once, when a man has been 
injured during the journey 
of the train, he has had 
to lie unattended for an 
hour or two, so that when 
the surgeon received the 
case, the effects of the ac- 
cident had so developed 
that the possibility of sav- 
ing the life ha'd become 
very remote. 

Realizing this salient 
point, the employees on the 
Boston and Maine Railroad 
have adopted the move- 
ment in vogue among Brit- 
ish railroads, and have in- 
augurated a means where- 
by the rendering of first 
aid to the injured may be 
taught among the numer- 
ous operatives. 

The scheme was origin- 
ated by the Railroad 
Branch of the Boston 
Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation, and when it was 
brought before the direc- 
tors of the company, • its 
widespread benefits were 
immediately realized. The 
authorities forthwith sanctioned the idea, and decided 
to defray the cost of initiating the men into first-aid 
work, the task of drilling the men being devolved upon 
Dr. H. H. Hartung, who is an active member of the 
National First Aid to Injured Society. Among the men 
too the scheme was warmly received, and the whole 
of the employees are being made proficient in the 
art of succoring the injured. The large shunting 
yards are the scenes of the greater majority of acci- 
dents, and the railway authorities have shown prac- 
tical sympathy with the movement by the establish- 
ment of emergency stations, replete with every ap- 
pliance necessary to render first aid, and to which the 
injured can be carried to await the arrival of the doc- 
tor. The greater part of the injuries received by rail- 
way men comprise fractures, contusions, crushings of 
various parts of the body, burns and scalds, and in 
some instances the supervening of blood poisoning 
within a short time of the accident, owing to the en- 
trance of some foreign substance into the wound. 

"Any surgeon will tell you," states Dr. Hartung, 
"that nearly everything depends upon the skillful and 
successful treatment of an injury immediately after 
it has been inflicted. Many an accident which is com- 
paratively trivial in nature develops seriously, owing 
to the shock the system has incurred before the prac- 
titioner arrives. For instance, take a compound frac- 
ture. Many a poor fellow struck down has lain in 



OPPOSITION OCCURS 



384 



Scientific American 



November 24, 1906. 



agony for an hour or so, owing to the absence of even 
the most rudimentary ideas of first aid, and when at 
last medical assistance is obtained, the case has so far 
progressed that it is practically hopeless for the pa- 
tient's life to be saved, or should the medical man 
triumph, the man possibly becomes a cripple for life, 
when had his comrades been able to succor him im- 
mediately, the subsequent complications might have 
been averted. Again, the knowledge of how to apply 



substitutes they can from things which are within 
convenient reach. In this direction the men have ex- 
hibited considerable ingenuity. At times efficient 
stretchers have been quickly and rudely fashioned 
from branches of trees growing on the railway em- 
bankments, while should wood be unavailable, as is 
the case in open and desert country, serviceable splints 
can be improvised from pillows or even coats. 

When the men have mastered theoretically the prin- 



gaged in practising the proper methods of removing 
an injured man from a precarious position, and carry- 
ing him either single-handed or with assistance to a 
more convenient spot. A common type of casualty is 
that in which one of the men on the engine, perhaps 
while walking round inspecting or oiling his charge, 
is struck by the cowcatcher through the engine start- 
ing unexpectedly, and is then thrown with force across 
the buffer frame. In such an accident the injuries 




Instructing the Class in Bandaging a Victim at the Scene 
of the Accident. 



Bandaging the Head and Limbs. Because of Great Distances, an Hour May 
Elapse Before Medical Aid Can Be Obtained. 



the tourniquet and check bleeding is very often a 
matter of life and death, while the ability to treat 
poisonings, dress rough wounds, severe scalds, and 
burns very often gives the unfortunate patient a 
chance of living. 

The railway men are taken through a complete 
curriculum, which is divided into two stages. The 
first course comprises a series of ten lectures together 
with the study of a manual. At first the men are 
acquainted with the anatomy of the human body, the 
names and positions of the various bones, and the 
functions of the muscles and vital organs. Then the 
blood circulation system is explained, as well as the 
principal arteries and veins. They are instructed in 
the application of the tourniquet and other means of 
checking bleeding. Respiration is then dealt with, 
and the men shown how to handle suffocation cases 
in various forms." 

These elementary principles explained, the employees 
have described to them the various kinds of wounds, 
such as contusions, lacerations, poisonings, and so 
forth, together with the correct treatment for the 
respective types of injuries. Burns and scalds are 
treated, and demonstrations carried out to show the 
proper methods of applying the various bandages. 
Following this comes the treatment of sprains, dislo- 
cations, fractures, together with the utilization of 
splints. The men are practically shown how to im- 
provise necessary appliances from the various facili- 
ties that are available, such as brooms and broken 
boxes. Many of them carry upon the trains complete 
emergency kits, but others are not so fortunately pro- 
vided. Then they have to devise the most serviceable 



ciples expounded in the lectures, they are submitted 
to a rigorous practical training, whereby they are able 
to demonstrate to the instructor how they would act 
in cases of emergency. For these tests the various 
shunting yards are utilized, one man acting as the 
supposititious victim. At such times one may see little 
groups of men darting hither and thither among the 
engines and cars with stretchers and other equipment 
with the utmost coolness, precision, and dispatch. The 
victim is supposed to have been crushed between two 
vehicles, run down by the locomotive, fallen from the 
train, or scalded. At the word of command the men 
dart across the rails, dodging the traffic, armed with 
their requisite impedimenta, and quickly, though ten- 
derly, pick up the injured man, swathe him in ban- 
dages or splints, repose him on #, stretcher, and con* 
sign him to the railway car ready for the practitioner 
when the train arrives at a convenient point for such 
assistance, since in the sparsely-populated districts an 
hour or two may elapse before the train reaches a 
station where a doctor is available. While engaged 
in these operations the doctor-instructor follows them 
through their work, pointing out the various symp- 
toms of different injuries that the men must observe, 
and correcting them should their treatment be er- 
roneous, at the same time carefully timing the opera- 
tions. "It is imperative," urges Dr. Hartung, "that 
you should administer aid in the simplest and most 
effective manner. You must do something, and what 
is more important, do it quickly. Many an injury 
simply depends upon the speed with which the wound 
is bandaged up." 

In another part of the yards men may be seen en- 





invariably comprise fractures of the leg and skull. 
The position of the patient is an awkward one, and 
great skill and care are required in his removal with- 
out accentuating the pain or aggravating the injury. 
Again, there is a proper way of removing a victim 
from the train itself, when the case is not sufficiently 
serious in character to necessitate the employment of 
a stretcher. The man is placed in a chair, and gently 
removed from the car to the ground without the 
slightest jar. 

When the men have become proficient in this work, 
they are initiated into the peculiarities of poisoning. 
The differences between common poisons are explained 
at great length, together with their respective symp- 
toms and the methods of treating such cases with the 
means ge&erally within reach. 

Shock to the nervous system as the result of a 
serious accident, and Unconsciousness, together with 
the treatments for the same, are also explained. Other 
forms of unconsciousness, such as might result from 
fits, concussion, and sunstroke, are fully dealt with, 
and the best remedies shown. Sunstroke is a very 
prevalent complaint among the railway men during 
the summer months, and in many instances the "at- 
tacks are of such severity that instant treatment is 
essential to avoid fatality. 

When the men have thoroughly mastered the theo- 
ries in this work of first aid, they are submitted to a 
severe oral and written examination. Those that pass 
through this ordeal are awarded a diploma. The suc- 
cessful student can then, if he feels so disposed, par- 
ticipate in the advanced series of five lectures. These 




The Proper Way of Removing an Injured Man Who Has Been 
Struck and Has Fallen on the Front End of the Engine. 



The Correct Way of Carrying an 
Injured Man Single-Handed. 

A MEDICAL CORPS FOB RAILROAD OPERATORS. 



Struck and Thrown Upon the Cowcatcher, With 
Serious Injury to the Legs and Skull. 



November 24, 1906, 



Scientific American 



385 



and devastating the towns on the west coast of this State, in- 
cluding Pensacola, it veered farther to the west, including in its 
zone much of the low-lying country that comprises the south- 
ern portions of Alabama and Mississippi, and the islands skirt- 
ing their shore line. 

In the confusion incident to the storm, the newspaper re- 
ports from the places visited by the storm are in the main so 
incomplete, that the reader cannot get an intelligent and 
comprehensive idea of the extent of the disaster and the 
actual causes of the greatest damage. Enough information is 
available from Mobile, however, to describe the character of 
the disturbance, the actual destructive force of the wind and 
water, and other phases which would be of special interest to 
the student of meteorology. The duration of the hurricane 
(for such it can properly be called) was remarkable. Begin- 
ning shortly after the midnight of September 26, the wind 




deal more in detail with the 
work of first aid, while the 
qualifying examination is much 
more severe, the successful ones 
receiving the medallion of the 
Association. 

The whole cost of the under- 
taking is borne by the railway 
authorities, so that the em- 
ployees do not have to expend 
a single penny in acquiring their 
knowledge. All that they have 
to do is to devote their own 
time to the instruction, and in 
this connection they have dis- 
played commendable willing- 
ness. 

Indirectly also the movement 
is of inestimable value to the 
traveling community in general, 
especially in view of the fact 
that railway disasters in Amer- 
ica are much more frequent and serious than in Eng- 
land. A scrutiny of the points at which such catas- 
trophes occur will demonstrate the fact that they fre- 
quently happen at some lonely and desolate spot far 
removed from medical aid. Consequently, two or three 
hours may elapse before the doctors arrive on the 
scene, and the death roll is accordingly heavier than 
would have been the case, had some assistance been 
forthcoming within a shorter time of the accident. 
With these trained railway men, the injured are ban- 
daged up until more expert skill can arrive. 



Typical Scene Along Mobile's Wharf Front ; a Fruit Steamer Cast up on Shore. 



EFFECTS OF THE RECENT HURRICANE AT MOBILE. 

BY DAY ALLEN W1LLEY. 

One of the most interesting storms, from a scientific 



standpoint, which has ever been experienced in the 
Southern States was that which recently caused so 
much damage along the Florida peninsula and the 
coast line of Alabama and Mississippi. Generally 
known as a "tropical hurricane," it differed from the 
usual disturbances .of this class by reason of its dura- 
tion, while in some features it bore a resemblance' to 
the cyclone which at times prevails in the level re- 
gions of the West. 

As is well known, the storm center hung over the 
West Indian Islands and the adjacent waters for a 
considerable period before it changed its course to the 
northwest. Consequently, the hurricane was not un- 
expected; its violence, however, surprised even the mete- 
orological experts. Passing over the Florida peninsula 



blew for fully twelve hours with a minimum velocity, 
with the exception of a few intervals or lulls, of 40 
miles. The average velocity as recorded by the in- 
struments at the Mobile Weather Bureau was but 55 
miles an hour — not sufficient in the opinion of the 
experts to cause the destruction that resulted. The 
maximum velocity, however, was much greater. There 
were times when it exceeded 70 miles an hour. These 
"gusts," which might be termed a series of tornadoes, 
were responsible for most of the damage inland. 

The site of Mobile . is such that it was exposed to 
the full' blast of the hurricane; for the city is built 
on ground which is low and flat. It is located partly 
at the head of Mobile Bay and on the northwest shore, 
a portion of the water front being on the Mobile River. 




A House on the Long Shell Road ; the Collapse Was Due to the VV ashing 
Away of the Foundations. 

EFFECTS OF THE RECENT HURRICANE AT MOBILE 



A River Steamer Lying Totally Wrecked in a Slip. 



386 



Scientific American 



November 24, 1906. 



This was another unfortunate circumstance, since the 
direction of the wind was such as literally to pile up 
the water of the bay and drive it ashore, the water 
rising fully ten feet above the surface of the piers. 
The bay is 36 miles long, and the hurricane swept 
its entire length in the direction of Mobile. To this 
fact is due the extensive loss by flooding; but the 
terrific force of the wind was shown in every part of 
the city, and many were the curious effects which it 
produced. 

As we have stated, to those familiar with the 
work of the western cyclone the storm of September 
27 bore a very noticeable resemblance to western dis- 
turbances. Objects offering little resistance were in 
many instances unharmed, while greater obstructions 
were razed or torn to pieces, and scattered over the 
ground. An odd prank of the wind was the partial 
destruction of a frame building located at the junc- 
tion of two streets. Although trees and telegraph 
poles were leveled all about it, and the structure was 
apparently directly in the path of the hurricane, only 
a part of it was demolished. A partition wall extend- 
ing from the ground floor to the roof had been built 
from front to back. The air current cut off a part of 
the house on one side of the partition as neatly as if 
it had been torn away by human hands. The part 
removed was blown to pieces, but not a crack was 
made in the walls left standing, except what had been 
there before the disaster. 

While most of the residences and smaller structures 
in the city are of wood, in the business section are a 
number of brick and stone warehouses. The churches 
and public edifices are mostly of massive design. 



bor. Hurled against coasting schooners and other 
small vessels, they crushed in their hulls as if they 
had been made of paper. One of the most picturesque 
wrecks was of a river steamer. Lifted by the com- 
bined force of the wind and waves, it was dashed 
against the wharf with such violence, that its frame- 
work was twisted from end to end, and the steamer 
buckled amidships. In this position it toppled against 
the wharf and sank. 

The hulls of the ocean-going craft riding at anchor 
suffered little damage, save where struck by the float- 
ing missiles driven by the waves; but rigging and 
spars were blown away like so many splinters and 
threads. The height of the waves can best be appre- 
ciated, when it is stated that the largest of the flot- 
sam, such as timbers two feet thick, were pitched upon 
the piers with smaller driftwood, some of the piles 
being ten feet high above the flooring of the piers. 
The piling supporting much of the wharf front was 
crushed in by blows from floating material, and the 
many small boats were thrown against it. The ware- 
houses for storing bananas and other fruit presented 
a curious appearance. One of the largest had all of 
its roof and one of its side walls blown completely 
away. In another instance the ends of a shed were 
blown out, leaving the sides and roof intact. An ex- 
amination of the wreckage of these buildings revealed 
another point of similarity to the Western cyclone: 
the destructive force had apparently been exerted with- 
in, as the planking and framework had been thrown 
outward in each case, and not inward. This seems to 
prove the theory that a wind current of great velocity 
causes such a vacuum in its vicinity, that it creates a 



The Alpine Trip of the Balloon " Milano." 

The balloon "Milano" left the grounds of the In- 
ternational Exposition of Milan on Sunday, November 
11, and arrived at Aix-les-Bains after having traveled 
over Mont Blanc, a distance of 175 miles, in three 
hours. 

The "Milano" had splendid weather from the start, 
and soon reached an altitude of 16,000 feet, accom- 
panied by 10 deg. P. of frost. The balloon traveled 
northward over Mont Blanc, and as it progressed it 
grew colder and colder. Below them the travelers 
could see nothing except an extensive field of snow, 
broken by sharp peaks and dotted with frozen Alpine 
lakes. The highest altitude reached was 20,500 feet. 
The rarefied atmosphere made it necessary for the men 
to resort to their supply of oxygen to keep alive. Ait 
one point of the trip Signor Usuelli succumbed to the 
nerveus strain and burst into tears. On the other side 
of the mountain the balloon descended gradually and 
landed safely at Aix-les-Bains. 

The "Milano" has a capacity of 1,000 cubic meters. 
The men in the car were Signor Usuelli and Signor 
Crespi. The report received is from the latter aero- 
naut. 



Volcanic Fertilizers. 

That there is a silver lining to every cloud, Dr. 
Stoklasa, professor at the Technical High School at 
Prague, again proves in the results of his tests in con- 
nection with the late eruption of Mount Vesuvius. In 
fact, according to his calculations, the crater has 
thrown out upward of fifty milliard kilos of volcanic 
mud, sand, lava, ashes, etc., upon the surrounding 




The Scene at the Oyster Docks ; the Wharves Were Demolished for Over a 
Mile and the Oyster Fleet Sunk or Piled up on the Piers. 



House on St. Louis Street With a Side Blown Away. 



EFFECTS OF THE RECENT HURRICANE AT MOBILE. 



Christ Episcopal Church is of masonry, except the 
steeple, which was built in three sections, the two 
upper ones being supported on wooden pillars. The 
force of the wind removed every vestige of the tower, 
even snapping off the timbers which anchored it to the 
framework of the main roof. The only protection to 
the city, if it could be called a protection, was the 
tree growth. Many of the. streets were shaded with 
trees from two to four feet in diameter at the base 
of the trunk. Bienville Square, one of the smaller 
parks in the heart of the city, contains a grove of the 
largest species. On the avenues could be seen rows of 
fallen trunks, not a single tree left standing for 
blocks, the impact of the air current being so great 
that usually the main portions of the roots were torn 
from the ground as completely as if the work had been 
done by some powerful explosive. For some unex- 
plained reason, most of the trees in Bienville Square, 
while not uprooted, were stripped of every twig and 
small branch, leaving them absolutely bare of foliage. 
On the other hand, very little of the foliage was torn 
from the trees blown over, except that on the side of 
the tree which struck the ground. 

Skirting the bay for a distance of about six miles 
was a driveway composed of oyster shells packed down 
to the depth of a foot or more, and rolled until the 
foundation was apparently as solid as a mass of stone 
or concrete. The action of the wind and water, how- 
ever, so completely destroyed this, that not a piece as 
large as the width of a shovel could be found after 
the storm. The shipping in the harbor suffered not 
only from the wind, but from the waves which it 
created; but much of the havoc on the water front 
was caused by the timbers, logs, and other material 
which had been washed from the shore into the har- 



strong suction or draft, which often causes more dam- 
age than the current itself. 

Observers of the effect of the air currents agree in 
the statement that they frequently changed their di- 
rections. The continual veering of the weather vanes 
was further proof of this fact. The pathway of the 
storm was of such width that it was not clearly 
marked by the> debris left in its wake, as is so fre- 
quently the case in a Western cyclone. 

The location of Mobile also afforded an opportunity 
to show the enormous lifting force which a violent 
wind exerts upon even a small body of water. The 
heavy rains rapidly swelled Mobile River and its tribu- 
taries. While this flood water flowed into' the bay, 
the rapid rise in the harbor as already stated was due 
more to the fact that the wind crowded the water into 
it. Waves which resembled Atlantic seas rolled in- 
shore to such a height that the water washed over the 
wharves and along the streets for a. distance of over 
half a mile from the piers. Much of the $5,000,000 
damage caused in Mobile and its vicinity was due to 
the undermining of buildings by this unexpected flood. 

m ■ i * 

Sweating of Pipes. 

Insulating cold water pipes is frequently done in 
sections of the country where the water flowing 
through the pipes is at a comparatively low tempera- 
ture, the warm air passing over them cooling so quick- 
lj as to cause condensation of the moisture in the air. 
The wet spots under the water pipes are frequently 
attributed to leaks, but the experienced plumber diag- 
noses the case as one of sweating. The remedy is to 
cover the pipes with some kind of non-conducting 
covering like some of the asbestos productions, protect- 
ing the pipes from the warm air. 



ground. These, he estimates, contain an average of 
at least 0.1 per cent nitrogen in the form of ammonia. 
The mountain has consequently produced about fifty 
million kilos of fertilizer, representing more ammonia 
and nitrous acid than is used in the whole of England. 
He has found besides enormous deposits of potassium 
phosphate and other fertilizers readily assimilated by 
the vegetable kingdom. The vapors constantly rising 
from the mouth of Vesuvius already contain much 
plant food, in fact the surroundings of volcanoes are 
always highly fertile, and have no need whatever of 
artificial fertilizers. Dr. Stoklasa has shown that am- 
monia is always rising from the crater as white smoke. 

« i • t * 

A New Comet Located by Holger Thiele. 

A cable dispatch has been received at Harvard Ob- 
servatory from Prof. Kreutz at Kiel saying that a 
comet, visible through a small telescope, was discov- 
ered by Holger Thiele at Copenhagen early Sunday 
morning in right ascension 9 hours 15 minutes 21.3 
seconds, declination 12 degrees 16 minutes 50 seconds. 

A second observation cabled at the same time gave 
the position in right ascension 9 hours 16 minutes 2.3 
seconds, declination 12 degrees 28 minutes 31 seconds. 



An alloy called "Monel-Metal" consists of: 

Per cent. 

Nickel 75.0 

Copper 23.5 

Iron 1.5 

The alloy possesses a high tensile strength and elas- 
tic limit. It is also non-corrosive and takes a high 
polish. The color is practically that of nickel. — Brass. 
World. 



November 24, 1906. 



Scientific American* 



387 



SOFT CRYSTALS SHOWING APPARENT LIFE. 

BY DR. ALFRED GRADENWITZ. 

The present tendency of physical science is rather 
toward evidencing a continuity between provinces that 
were formerly entirely separated from each other than 
to establishing new boundaries corresponding to new 
categories. The impossibility of establishing a defi- 
nite boundary between solid and liquid states has been 
evidenced in the course of the last few years by the 
work of Prof. 0. Lehmann, of Karlsruhe, Germany, 
whose researches on liquid crystals deserve the high- 
est interest, the more so as the soft crystallinic forms 
produced and investigated by this physicist show 
some striking analogies with the world of living be- 
ings, thus constituting another link in the chain of 
recent researches on the boundary between living and 
apparently dead matter, to which attention has been 
drawn especially by Butler Burke's recent investiga- 
tions. As a complement to these researches on one 
hand and to Prof. Leduc's work on the other (of 
which the writer has published an account in a recent 
issue of the Scientific American) the following ob- 
servations may be of interest. 

An organic substance called para-azoxy-cinnamic- 
acid-ethyl-ether, obtained in the "fleeting" crystal- 
linic state between 139 deg. and 248 deg. C, is one 
of the most remarkable substances susceptible of as- 
suming this condition. In fact, the phenomena ob- 
served under the microscope seemingly show a per- 
fect analogy with the phenomena of living beings, 
so that partisans of the ancient theory of spontane- 
ous generation might avail themselves thereof in es- 
tablishing the basis of their theory. While modern 
science abhors premature conclusions, so far from 
discarding such phenomena as are incompatible with 
present laws, it should most thoroughly and without 
any prejudice examine any facts brought to its notice. 



oil drops, especially in case their position is a cor- 
responding one. In the event, however, of their being 
placed in opposition, the summit and base of the 
pyramids coinciding, twin crystals will be produced, 
showing at the juncture, owing to the refraction of 
light, a cross on a gray rhomb. 

While crystals of an oily consistency are produced 
as the temperature continues dropping, they are no 
more able to withstand the pressure of surface ten- 
sion (increased owing to the decrease in temperature, 
and which acts like an elastic membrane encom- 
passing the whole) so as to be compressed to spheres, 
the crystalline structure of which is only manifest- 
ed by their special refraction. If any one of these 
spheres is turned over, it is found not to be absolutely 
round, but to show a flattening or funnel-shaped de- 
pression at some point, from the middle of which a 
dark straight line leads to the centrum of the sphere. 
If the latter be so placed that the depression is situ- 
ated either on the top or underneath, everything be- 
ing symmetrical round the center, it will show a set 
of concentric circles; this is what is called the "first 
main position." If on the other hand the depression 
be situated sideways, the dark stroke will be seen 
leading from the center to the periphery; this is what 
Prof. Lehmann terms the "second main position." 
If now two drops combine in the first position, one 
drop with only one core or center and one depression 
will be obtained, and the same in the second main po- 
sition if the positions be corresponding ones. -If, how- 
ever, the depressions be placed in opposition, both will 
be maintained in the resulting drop. If finally two 
individuals strike each other at their depressions, a 
twin form will be produced, the spheres being com- 
bined without flowing together into a single one. Such 
twin structures may also be produced spontaneously, 
an extension growing out of the depression of a drop 



the phenomenon, he will see the serpent to be instantly 
contracted to a sphere, thrown away by the force of 
contraction. 

Similar phenomena are observed in the case of the 
ordinary rods. These will in fact bend into a ring, 
while a contraction to a sphere occurs as soon as the 
ends meet. A similar effect is observed in the case 
of the contact of two rods, while a combination of 
rods to twins and threefold structures is observed in 
some cases. Serpents will sometimes spring up from 
the depression of drops in the second main position, 
or else a given serpent will give rise to the produc- 
tion of a thinner one, or else its thickness will grad- 
ually decrease during growth, resulting in a structure 
analogous to a germ filament, showing a similar oscil- 
latory motion of the tail. 

Rods and serpentine structures are frequently ob- 
served in the case of the separation of a bud connect- 
ing the latter to the mother individual as well as in 
the case of a subdivision. The addition of foreign 
substances may result in some kind of poisoning, the 
phenomena of motion being slackened or the morpho- 
genetic force vanishing, or else some disfiguration be- 
ing produced. Even the absorbing force of the glass 
may result in disturbances, the drops being attracted 
by it. A multitude of remarkable structures is formed 
even in normal conditions, a serpent being, e. g., sud- 
denly separated into a chain of droplets, or else into a 
miniature rod showing expansions which are gradually 
converted into a drop. 

m 1 M 1 » 

Wormholes In Wood, 

Wood felled and worked up is frequently subject 
to wormholing. The sapwood is much more attacked 
than the perfect wood, and it has to be cut off when 
we wish to produce durable work; whence a pretty con- 
siderable loss. Mons. Emile Mer noticed that the spe- 










k r^Bi 



i^vHH 




Long Crystals Squirming Like Serpents. 



Creeping Crystals. 
SOFT CRYSTALS SHOWING APPARENT LIFE. 



Fleeting Crystals at Rest as Seen by Polarized Light. 



In the present case its task will be to investigate how 
far the forces working in the living organism agree 
with the forces of lifeless nature. A striking differ- 
ence in the behavior of these two classes, as so far ob- 
served, has been that while the growth of living be- 
ings takes place in virtue of internal absorption ("in- 
tussusception"), and while by the copulation of two 
individuals into- a single one, or the subdivision of 
one individual into two or more, an increase or de- 
crease in their size is produced, the crystals so far 
known would grow only in virtue of the gradual add- 
ing together of molecules. Now the substance re- 
ferred to in the beginning just shows the same phe- 
nomena as were so far attributed solely to living mat- 
ter, and in addition exhibits some most striking mo- 
tional phenomena, that are quite analogous to those 
of micro-organisms. So far from considering these 
soft crystals as living beings, Prof. Lehmann suggests 
that they fill up a gap in our knowledge of molecular 
effects, the forces acting in the case of both classes 
being possibly identical. 

When heating a small amount of the substance 
above mentioned, after moistening it with some mono- 
bromine-naphthaline as solvent until only a few par- 
ticles of the jelly- are left, and cooling to about 200 
deg. C, some short, square columns with rounded 
edges and angles will, under the microscope, be found 
to be. separated, showing in some cases the shape of 
pyramids. The lower the temperature, the less will 
be their tenacity, possibly owing to their absorbing 
some of the solvent in a way analogous to other crys- 
tals, dyeing stuffs, etc. While being colorless when 
inspected in a longitudinal direction, they show a 
yellow and sometimes a reddish-yellow tint on being 
viewed transversely. 

Whenever two individuals come in contact with each 
other, they are seen immediately to combine like two 



gradually taking the size of an equivalent sphere. 
This shows a perfect analogy with the springing up 
of a bud, as observed in the case of micro-organisms, 
this bud being thrown off after some time, and con- 
tinuing its existence as an independent individual of 
the same species as the original. A perfect analogue to 
the ordinary phenomenon of subdivision as observed 
in the case of the smallest organisms is likewise noted, 
the drop in the first main position being frequently 
drawn out to a bacterium-shaped small rod, this being 
suddenly divided into two pieces. Before this separa- 
tion a sort of partition wall is observed at the dividing 
point, as ascertained .by a strange light refraction due 
to the twin position of the molecules. 

So far from being at rest, the drops are susceptible 
of rotating around their axis. The miniature rods 
frequently show phenomena of motion analogous to 
those of the diatoms, being a slow creeping both for- 
ward and backward, while passing through what seem 
to be obstacles to the motion. The small rods in some 
cases suddenly take the shape of long serpents, bend- 
ing incessantly with great energy, and even moving 
from their ordinary position and performing what 
seems to be a peristaltic motion. The growth of these 
serpents, which is evidently intensified by cooling, 
actually forms an analogy to: growth by internal ab- 
sorption (intussusception) in the case of living onan- 
isms. Though the separation of substance occurs at 
the surface of the serpent, its thickness remains per- 
fectly constant, there being only an alternation of its 
length. Any molecules joining the structure are evi- 
dently drawn immediately into the interior, dispers- 
ing the existing molecules. Sometimes such a serpent 
will expand with extraordinary speed, covering the 
whole field of vision of the microscope, while some- 
times disappearing before the eyes of the observer. 
If the latter succeed in studying the various phases of 



cies attacked are those whose sapwood contains the 
most starch; on the other hand, analysis revealed to 
him that the dust from the wormholes no longer con- 
tained starch. The insect, therefore, introduced itself 
into the wood in order to nourish itself at the expense 
of this material. Now, starch is produced by the 
leaves under the influence of the light; there go 
branches to the trunk and to the roots through the 
liber or inner part of the bark. Removing a ring of 
bark intercepts the descent. The starch newly elabor- 
ated accumulates above the ring; that which existed 
in the inferior region is soon absorbed and transformed 
by the cells of the wood, whose food it constitutes. 
Hence an annulation of a few centimeters' length 
at the top of the trunk, three or four months before 
the felling, is sufficient to eliminate the starch from 
the trunk. The best season for operating is the 
spring; the trees can then be felled in October. It is 
essential not to allow any shoot to develop below the 
excoriated part. — L'lllustration. 

»-■»■.■♦ 

It is said that tantalum has great possibilities when 
used for tool making, its toughness and hardness rival- 
ing the diamond. Von Bolton made a laboratory ex- 
periment recently, when a sheet 0.04 inch was ham- 
mered from the first piece produced of the pure metal, 
and all attempts to drill a hole through it were found 
to be futile. Finally a diamond drill was employed, 
and after continuous work for seventy hours at a 
speed of 5,000 revolutions per minute, about one-fourth 
of the task had been completed, while the drill was 
so badly worn as to necessitate a discontinuance of 
the test. Tantalum is entirely non-magnetic,- has a 
specific gravity varying from 14 to 17, and fuses at 
about 2,300 deg. C. (4,172- deg. P.). In the form of a 
wire it has a tensile strength of about 128,000 pounds 
per square inch. — Mechanical World. 



388 



A UNIQUE NON-REFILLABLE EoTTLE. 
A non-refillable bottle has recently been invented, 
whose chief claim to distinction lies in the fact that it 
has no mouth, but is assembled and filled through an 
opening in the bottom, which is thereafter closed in 
such a manner that it cannot be opened again. A 
pair of small apertures are provided in the side of 
the neck, through which the contents can be poured 
out. The bottle is first blown in the form shown at 
the left in the engraving, with no openings in it what- 
ever. In the neck of the bottle are two bosses of thin 
glass, while the bottom is formed with a recess. The 
upper wall of this recess is broken away to effect an 
opening into the bottle, and this leaves an inwardly- 
extending annular flange with rough or broken edges. 
The bosses on the neck are also broken off, to form 
the apertures through which the contents of the bottle 
may be poured out. A metal cap is fitted over the neck 
of the bottle and held in place by crimping the edges 
over a shoulder in the glass. A cork ring between the 
cap and the bottle neck serves to seal the apertures. 
The opening in the bottom of the bottle is large 
enough to admit the mechanism which is fitted into 
the neck. This mechanism is clearly illustrated in 
one of the views, which shows a section of the neck. 
It comprises a tube, in the upper end of which a ball 
valve is seated. The lower end of the tube is en- 
larged to receive a member in which a second ball 
valve is seated. This member is securely fitted into 
the bottle neck by means of a cork collar. The bottle 
may now be inverted and tilled, after which the open- 
ing in the bottom is closed by a glass stopper. The 
stopper is provided with an annular recess, in which 
a cork collar is fitted. The collar bears tightly against 
the annular flange of the opening, and swells over the 
broken edge. The exterior face of the stopper lies 
flush with the bottom of the bottle, so that it cannot 
be pried out, and being of glass, it cannot be easily 
drilled out. In use, the metal cap of the bottle and 
the cork collar are removed from the neck; then when 
the bottle is tilted the ball valves are unseated, permit- 
ting the liquid to flow through recesses past the lower 
valve, then through the tube, and out of the apertures 
in the neck of the bottle. These apertures are so 
placed that it would be impossible to tamper with the 
valves by inserting a wire into the neck of the bottle. 
The mechanism is simple and inexpensive, and does 
not require an expert to assemble it. The complete 
bottle costs but a fraction more than an ordinary 
one. The inventor of this bottle is Mr. L. A. Robert- 
son, 638 Bast 139th Street, New York, N. Y. 



AW IMPBOVED TRY-SQUARE. 

Illustrated in the accompanying engraving is an im- 
proved try-square of such design as to enable the mark- 
ing of two faces of the work simultaneously. Further- 
more, it permits of marking the timber for a square or 
plumb cut, and also for a beveled cut. In general, the 
new square resembles the standard type, consisting, as 
it does, of a stock at one end of which a blade is 
attached, projecting at right angles thereto. On the 
stock a central tongue is formed, which extends longi- 
tudinally of the. stock. . The; thickness of this .tongue 
is the same as that of the blade, so that its faces 
lie flush therewith. A similar tongue is formed on 
the end of the stock by the projecting edge of the 
blade. Thus far the description applies equally well 
to the standard square. The improvement, however, 
consists in a short blade, which fits at right angles to 
and across the main blade, and is seated in the recess 
in the stock, so that its outer face lies 1 flush with the 
edge of the stock. The short blade thus forms two 
wings lying on opposite sides of the main blade. One 
of these wings is square, so that its upper edge lies in 
the plane of the upper edge of the main blade. The 




other wing, however, is 
cut away, so that its upper 
edge forms an angle of 45 
degrees with the plane of 
the main blade. In use 
the try-square may be 
placed against the edge of 
a timber, when, if a plumb 
cut is desired, one face of 
the timber may be marked 
along the edge of the main 
blade, and the other face 
of the timber along the 



Scientific American 

edge of the square wing. If a bevel cut is to be made, 
the timber is marked along the inclined edge of the 
other wing, while the other face of the timber is 
marked, as before, along the edge of the main blade. 
When the try-square is used in the ordinary way, the 
wings will not be found to offer any inconvenience, 
but will assist in. keeping the stock square with the 
edge of the timber. The main blade is provided on 



November 24, 1906. 




AN IMPROVED TRY- 
SQUARE. 



A UNIQUE NON-REFILLABLE BOTTLE. 

each face with a graduated arc which can be conven- 
iently used as a protractor. The inventors of this 
try-square are Messrs. James Collie and Charles Beau- 
chene, of Lake Linden, Mich. 

«in > ■ 

Proposed Excavation of Herculaueum. 

The recent great eruption of Mount Vesuvius drew 
the attention of the entire civilized world to the region 
in which the great volcano manifested its activity. It 
is, therefore, with exceptional interest that we hear 
of the proposed completion of the excavation of Her- 
culaneum, buried under the first great historic up- 
heaval of Vesuvius in 79 A. D. ' Prof. Charles Wald- 
stein, Professor of Pine Arts at King's College, Cam- 
bridge, England, has long entertained the idea of a 
complete excavation of the buried city, and has at last 
succeeded in perfecting an agreement with the Italian 
government for the carrying out of the project. Prof. 
Waldstein has obtained the active co-operation of King 
Victor Emanuel of Italy, as president of the organiza- 
tion, and has, furthermore, had the assistance and 
support of Emperor William, King Edward, and Presi- 
dent Roosevelt. Prof. Waldstein is an American, 
though holding the professorship of Fine Arts at Cam- 
bridge. He began the preparatory work of forming 
his organization for the purpose of laying bare the 
hidden secrets of Herculaneum some two years ago; 
when the project aroused considerable interest through- 
out Europe and America. Despite political opposition 
to the scheme in Italy, where it seemed at first that 
the attitude of the Italian government was one of un- 
willingness to permit any other country to take part in 
work of this character, the concession has practically 
been obtained, and the work will doubtless be inaugu- 
rated in the near future. 

The excavation of Herculaneum will be a gigantic 
enterprise, totally different, in regard to the amount of 
labor necessary, from the excavation of Pompeii, which 
was buried at the same time. As early as 1738 at- 
tempts to excavate Herculaneum were made by King 
Charles III. The work, which had hardly proceeded 
further than the initial stages, was continued under 
the direction of the Italian government in 1866. Since 
that time practically no further progress has been 
made. The work has always been attended with the 
greatest difficulty, for the reason that the modern town 
of Resina, with 20,000 inhabitants, is located over the 
ruins of the ancient buried city, and, therefore, it has 
usually been found necessary to abandon the research 
work after a short period of excavation. 

As Prof. Waldstein observed in his lecture at the 
White House, in December, 1904, the difference in the 
present status of the buried cities of Pompeii and 
Herculaneum is due to the fact that the former was 
covered to a depth of only about 15 feet, while Hercu- 
laneum, on the other hand, in many places was buried 
to a depth of 80 feet. Herculaneum, of distinctly Hel- 
lenic foundation, was a far more representative home 
of Greek art and literature than Pompeii, for the latter 
was a purely commercial city. The slight excavation 
which so far has been carried out at the site of Her- 



culaneum has produced vast numbers of specimens of 
art and literature, one villa alone yielding 1,750 papyri. 
Some of the bronzes recovered are in a far more beauti- 
ful state of preservation than the majority of those 
from Pompeii. The latter city, though much influ- 
enced by Hellenic culture, was never a real center of 
Greek civilization, such as Herculaneum, and, doubt- 
less, the excavation of the latter will bring forth price- 
less treasures of the literature and art of antiquity. 



Prize Competition for Scientific Research. 

The Academy of Sciences of Copenhagen recently de- 
cided to award the following prizes for research in 
different branches of science: Astronomy — gold medal 
of the academy and the sum of 400 crowns for the de- 
tailed study of Faye's periodic comet, the observations 
of the return of the comet to be made the basis of the 
calculations during the period of 1873-1896. Communi- 
cations are to be handed in before October 31, 1908. 
Botany — Gold medal of the academy and the sum of 
400 crowns. A sufficiently large selection is to be 
made of the microscopic vegetable organisms which 
are found in the sandy soil or mud on the Danish 
coast. The research is to distinguish between the 
specimens and determine which of them are of 
native origin and which have been brought by the 
sea or in any other way. A special prize of 800 crowns 
is to be awarded for a research as to the method of 
determining the proportion of dry substance and starch 
contained in the potato. The method is to be a simple 
and practical one, and give exact results. It is to be 
based upon the careful and thorough examination of 
the amounts of these substances in different specimens 
under test. The experimenter is to study the degree 
of precision with which it is possible to calculate these 
proportions by determining the densities or by other 
easily-applied methods, and he is to indicate the best 
processes for taking samples and for the ulterior treat- 
ment. The paper is to contain a critical account of 
preceding work in the same field. It is to be handed 
in before October 31, 1908. The above manuscripts 
can be written in Danish, French,. Swedish, English, 
German, or Latin, and are to be anonymous, accom- 
panied by a sealed envelope with the name and ad- 
dress. They should be sent to Prof. Zeuthon, secretary 
of the academy, Copenhagen. 



SAFETY CAN LIFTER. 
In canning certain kinds of food, it is customary to 
place the filled jars or cans in a kettle of water, and 
place the latter on the fire. Then when the water has 
come to a boil, the jars are sealed. The task of re- 
moving the jars from the boiling water without scald- 
ing the hands is rather difficult. To render this task 
safer, Mrs. Emily A. Austin, of Bethel, Sullivan County, 
N. Y., has invented the can lifter illustrated in the 
accompanying drawing. The device is extremely sim- 
ple, consisting merely of a base plate on which the can 
rests, a standard, and hinged to the latter a bail, which 
is adapted to be swung over the neck of the jar. The 
standard consists of a pair of wire legs bent to form 
an eye at the top, which serves as a handle, and a pair 
of eyes at the sides, to form bearings for the bail. The 
latter, which is of horseshoe shape, is formed with a 
handle bent upward, so that by raising the handle the 
bail can be swung up clear of the top of the can. In 
this raised position it may be held by slipping the 
handle over a hook at the top of the standard. In use 
the base plate is passed under the jar or can, and the 
handle is unhooked, permitting the bail to fall over 
the neck of the jar. The jar may then be easily lifted 
out of the kettle, and thereafter removed from the 
holder by raising the bail. The entire operation is 
performed without touching the jar with the hand. 




SAFETY CAN LIFTER. 



November 24, 1906. 



Scientific American 



3% 



BECENTLY PATENTED INVENTIONS. 
Pertaining to Apparel. 

TROUSERS-SUPPORT. — A. ML Taylor, 
Port Ewen, N. Y. The object of the invention 
is to provide a support which is easily manipu- 
lated for placing the trousers in position on 
the support or removing the same therefrom 
and arranged to clamp the waistband of the 
trousers in position, so that the trousers hang 
naturally down from the support, to avoid fold- 
ing and consequent undesirable doubling up 
and creasing of the trousers. 

GARMENT-HANGER.— E. T. Palmenberg, 
N.ew York, N. Y. The inventor's object is to 
provide a hanger designed for supporting one 
or more garments, such as coats, skirts, and 
the like, and arranged to securely hold the 
supporting-bar in position on the hook and to 
readily accommodate the velvet or other deli- 
cate coat collar without danger of crushing 
the same. 

TROUSERS-BRACE AND STOCKING-SUP- 
PORT. — J. T. Andrew, Montgomery, Ala. The 
invention relates to improvements in combined 
trousers-braces and stocking or sock support- 
ers, the object being to provide a device of 
this character that will prevent the trousers 
from bagging at the knee and also to main- 
tain the front crease of the trousers-legs for 
a considerable length of time, thus preventing 
frequent pressing. 



Electrical Devices. 

VOLTAGE-REGULATOR. — T. M. Pusey, 
Kennett Square, Pa. In the present invention 
there is a tipping beam, controllable by the 
action of a main solenoid and adapted to con- 
trol the opening and closing of certain contacts 
encircling the main solenoid are annular sole- 
noids for preventing the solenoid core from 
racing. 

ELECTRIC , SIGNALING SYSTEM.— J. S. 
Anderson, Ames, Neb. It may happen that a 
portion of a track is displaced by landslide, 
or a bridge turned, or one or more cross-ties 
dislodged, or the track maliciously tampered 
with. In these and all cases of a similar 
kind by means of this invention warning is 
given directly and automatically to the loco- 
motive engineer as soon as the locomotive ap- 
proaches within a suitable distance of the 
part of the track thus affected. 



Of Interest to Farmers. 

SHEEP-HOOK.— E. W. Stauffer, Chinook, 
Mont. This hook is very efficient and easily 
operated without injury to the leg of the 
sheep. Very light pressure is required to re- 
lease the catch or to return it into an oper- 
ative position. When in operative position, it 
is impossible for the sheep to release itself. 
It may be used with equal facility as a goose 
or turkey-hook, in which case it should be 
made of lighter material. 

Of General Interest* 

PEN-WIPER. — J. S. Stull, Jr., and C. P. 
Berkes, Philadelphia, Pa. The device is par- 
ticularly for use in wiping draftsmen's ruling 
pens, the object being to provide one that will 
be simple in construction and by means of 
which the pen-points may be quickly and 
thoroughly cleaned of ink at both the inner 
and outer sides and more conveniently than 
by employing the usual cloth. 

COAL-WASHER AND ORE-CONCENTRAT- 
OR.— A. C. Campbell, Asheville, N. C. The 
object of the present invention is to provide a 
washer and concentrator arranged to effective- 
ly separate the more dense material from the 
less and to insure a uniform distribution of 
the material into the separating pan. It re- 
lates to coal-washers and ore-concentrators 
such as shown and described in the Letters 
Patent of the U. S., formerly granted to Mr. 
Campbell. 

AUTOMATIC FIREARM.— J. J. Reifgraber, 
St. Louis, Mo. The invention relates particu- 
larly to that class of automatic firearms in 
which the several operations— such as the un- 
locking and opening of the breech after firing 
a shot, the extracting and ejection of the 
empty cartridge-shell, the cocking of the ham- 
mer, the introduction of a fresh cartridge into 
the firing-chamber, and the closing and locking 
of the breech — are automatically effected by 
the pressure of the gases generated by the 
cartridge explosion. 

APPARATUS FOR DISTILLING TURPEN- 
TINE. — J. G. Saunders, Lake Park, Ga. By 
the operating means of this apparatus the hot 
spirit of turpentine as it comes from the worm 
of the still is cooled down to or even below 
atmospheric temperature without exposure to 
the air and without any loss by evaporation 
or any swelling and subsequent leakage of the 
barrels. 

CAMP-BED.— F. D. Rappelee, Green Bay, 
Wis. The purpose of the invention is to pro- 
vide an economic form of camp or field bed, 
and to so construct the same that it can _be 
compactly folded for storage and transporta- 
tion, quickly set up for use, and so that all 
parts will remain connected at all times. 

PROPORTIONAL CALIPERS.— J. Prario, 
Mount Hope, W. Va. The aim of the inventor 
is to provide a means whereby any definite 
relationship between the lengths of the oppo- 
site legs may be secured at will and in which 
there is no liability of this relationship being 



accidentally varied or changed during the use 
of the instrument on any one particular piece 
of the work. 

APPARATUS FOR HANDLING HIDES. — 
B. A. McNabb, Lowell, Mass. The improve- 
ment pertains to a means for handling hides 
or skins, particularly those being treated for 
so-called "patent-leather," and by means of 
which the hides fastened to the boards in the 
usual manner may be readily placed in proper 
position in the drying oven, and when the 
drying process is finished the hides may be 
removed from the oven in far less time and 
labor than by the ordinary methods of hand- 
ling. 

LAUNDRY-TAG.— F. F. Akerly and W. 
Borchert, Reno, Nev. One purpose of this 
invention is to provide a tag especially adapt- 
ed for laundry use and which can be quickly 
and conveniently applied to any article to be 
laundered and which will remain on the article 
until purposely removed, the removal being very 
readily accomplished. It can be applied by 
hand or machine, and will not rust a garment. 

ANCHOR. — F. B. Langston, Brooklyn, N. 
Y. The invention has for its purpose anchor- 
ing devices in which the seizing device is sunk, 
owing to the fact that the ground is softened 
or loosened beneath it by fluid under pressure 
in such a manner that the seizing device is 
able to sink into the subsoil owing to its- own 
weight. 

EXTENSION BRACE-BAR.— J. W. Komi- 
nek, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. In this patent the 
invention refers to improvements in brace-bars 
particularly adapted for use in supporting 
theatrical stage-wings or. the like, the object 
being to provide a brace that may be. readily 
adjusted as to length and firmly held when 
adjusted. 



ISHING-MACHINES.— I. L. Pomeroy, Lock- 
port, N. Y. The principal objects of the de- 
vice are to provide for the universal adjust- 
ment of the holder, so that it can be applied 
to any kind of work and so that the work 
may be manipulated in any desired manner 
to secure the desired polishing action without 
introducing any necessity for moving the pol- 
ishing-wheel itself, except the ordinary rota- 
tion of the same upon the axis. The means 
provided saves a large percentage in the cost 
of labor in these, operations. 

SAWMILL. — J. H. IIOwser, Dawsonville, 
Ga. The principal objects of the inventor are 
to provide for automatically reversing a re- 
ciprocating carriage at each end of its stroke, 
so connected with other operating parts that 
the reversing means will not interfere with the 
operation of a hand-operated means for stop- 
ping and reversing the carriage, and also per- 
mitting a saw when used in a sawmill to ro- 
tate continuously and to be driven from the 
same source of power as the means for driv- 
ing the carriage. 

MACHINE FOR DECORTICATING RAMIE 
AND OTHER FIBROUS PLANTS— J. M. A. 
Faitre, 21 Place du Champ de F'oire, Limoges, 
Haute-Vienne, France. The invention consists 
of a finishing-cleaner adapted to operate in an 
automatic and continuous manner and so con- 
structed as to effect in succession the intro- 
duction of the previously-disintegrated textile 
materials between a pair of cleaning scraper- 
cylinders and their subsequent submission to a 
drawing action in a direction opposed to that 
in which the cylinders tend to draw the mate- 
rials, such action continuing until the stems, 
etc., are entirely disengaged from the cylin- 
ders. 

WOODWORKING-MACHINE.— E. S. Berry, 
Putnanrvillc, Vt. The machine operates upon 
Wood and similar materials, and while capable 
of general use is especially adapted to making 
blanks from which clothes-pins are to be made. 
The principal objects are to provide means for 
feeding and holding the blanks for grooving 
opposite surfaces thereof and for beveling the 



Hardware. 

WRENCH.— A. Lovell, East St. Louis, 111. 
The invention has reference particularly to the 
type commonly termed "pipe-wrenches." The 
principal object is the provision of a simple 
and durable implement the jaws of which may 
be drawn toward and separated from one an- 
other to set them upon the work by a force 
applied to and tending to revolve the handle 
about the work. 

LOCK. — O. Katzenberger, San Antonio, 
Texas. The lock belongs to the padlocks of 
the keyless combination type, and the invent- 
or's aim Is the provision of a lock of this 
character that will be simple in construction, 
having no parts liable to get out of order, and 
that may be opened only by a person knowing 
the combination. 

NUT-LOCK.-W. S. Mason, La Salle, 111. Prlme M ° Vers and Tl,elr Accessories. 
Mr. Mason's improvements are applicable to MULTIPLE-CYLINDER ROTARY EXPLO- 
either square, hexagonal, or octagonal nuts SIVE-ENGINE.— B. F. Walker, Bridgeport, 
and are effective in locking the nut in position Conn. The prime objects of the improvement 



TYPE SETTING AND DISTRIBUTING MA- 
CHINE.— A. G. Baker, Albion, Mich. In this 
instance the invention relates to a machine 
for setting individual type under the control 
of a keyboard and for automatically distribut- 
ing the type into various compartments or 
cases provided therefor, the machine being 
capable of performing the operations of set- 
ting and distributing either simultaneously or 
independently. 



on the bolt without requiring any extra turn- 
ing of the nut in either direction. They are 
also applicable for intended purposes irres- 
pective of the particular number of turns re- 
quired to be made of the nuts upon the bolt 
in order to bring the transverse holes in the 
bolt and the case in proper registry to receive 
the locking-pin. 



Heating and Lighting. 

AUTOMATIC-LIGHTING BURNER. — H. 

Lyon, Oneonta, N. Y. The aim of this in- 
ventor is to provide simple and improved means 
for automatically lighting a burner, such as 
a gas-burner. The invention is applicable to 
gas, gasolene, or petroleum burners of all 
kinds used for lighting purposes and seems 
especially useful in connection with gas-burn- 
ers for illuminating purposes. 

DRAFT DEVICE FOR FURNACES'. — W. G. 

McPherson, Portland, Ore. Special means 
are employed by which air may be introduced 
to the fuel on the bottom of the fire-box of a 
furnace at numerous places throughout the 
mass of the fuel rather than at those por- 
tions only thereof lying at the front of the 
furnace. Such means may be constructed sep- 
arately from or as an integral part of the 
furnace and may be renewed or replaced from 
time to time, no dismantling or separation of 
other portions of the furnace being necessary 
for enabling this to be done. 



Household Utilities. 

CAKE-TRIMMER.— J. B. Winfkee, Jr., 
Lynchburg, Va. The device is chiefly applica- 
ble and useful ' for trimming the edges of 
layer-cakes, which it expeditiously effects with 
economy of material without breaking away 
any portion save that which is eccentric or too 
rough. It is very difficult to cut the edges of 
such cakes while hot, but this invention per- 
forms the operation in such a manner that the 
cakes are left in the best practical form. 



machines and Mechanical Devices. 

DECAPPING, RECAPPING, AND SIZING 

MACHINE.— D. E. Swaysgood, Mark Center, 
Ohio. The invention relates to cartridges ; and 
its object is to provide a machine arranged to 
permit convenient decapping and recapping of 
the shells and accurate sizing thereof. The 
shell is first decapped, then resized, and finally 
recapped before leaving the machine, and it is 
not necessary to handle the shell a number of 
times for performing the several operations. 
UNIVERSAL WORK-HOLDER FOR POL- 



are to attain, first, several expansion-strokes 
from each cylinder at every revolution of the 
engine, thereby giving greatly-increased power 
with light weight and small area ; second, di- 
rect thrust with no lateral strain on the pis- 
ton and cylinder ; third, dispensing with 
crank ; fourth, a means for mechanically open- 
ing the inlet and exhaust valves ; fifth, devices 
for automatically reversing the engine. 

ROTARY EXPLOSIVE - ENGINE. — B. F. 
Walker, Bridgeport, Conn. In its present 
form the invention comprises a stationary 
cammed member of circular undulating form, 
this member sustaining revolubly a central 
shaft with a cylinder or cylinders, which turn 
with a shaft and which have their pistons con- 
nected with a part running in or against the 
cammed part, so that by the reaction .of the 
piston movement on the cam a continuous ro- 
tary movement is imparted. It relates to a 
specific form covered, broadly, in a copending 
application for engines formerly filed by Mr. 
Walker. 

GOVERNOR.— A. C. Campbell, Asheville, 
N. C. The invention relates to devices for 
regulating the speed of engines, motors, and 
other machinery ; and its object is to provide 
a new and improved governor, more especially 
designed to subject the source of power to 
such automatic restraint as to check any ten- 
dency to variability of the speed of the mo- 
tor, the governor being exceedingly sensitive, 
and positive in its action. 

STEAM-BOILER.— C. E. Chapman, Fort 
Edward, N. Y. The inventor provides a quick- 
steaming purely coil-boiler in which cojls are 
continuous from around the firebox throughout 
the body and header in the dome from which 
live steam is taken, the water being forced un- 
der pressure in the fire-box coils, passing in 
vapor to the body-coils, the vapor entering 
headers of the series of body-coils farthest 
from the fire-box and then entering headers 
of next series at a point close to the fire-box, 
so that the vapor travels from any series to 
the other in the direction of the fire-box and 
contrary to direction of travel of products of 
combustion. 

REGULATOR. — E. A. Beyer, Marquette, 
Mich. The regulator is adapted to be applied 
to governors, valves, and other spring-actuated 
parts by means of which the set of the gover- 
nor or valve under the spring may be regulated, 
at will, for instance, if the invention is ap- 
plied to an air-brake governor the spring of. 
which is set at a certain pressure. Said ad- 
justment of the spring may be temporarily 
changed by the device, so as to bring about 
operation at another pressure or pressures. 



Railways and Their Accessories. 

SIGNAL.— C. P. Ruggles, Texarkana, Texas. 
The object of the present invention is the pro- 
vision of a flag holder or staff which will nor- 
mally conceal a plurality of flags or similar 
signals of different colors or significance, ar- 
rangement being made for bringing any one of 
these flags into view when desired. 

TIE-BAR. — J. F. McKechnie, Eleele, Ha- 
waii. In this case the invention relates to 
railway-tracks; and its object is to provide a 
new and improved tie-bar for connecting the 
rails with each other with a view to prevent 
spreading of the rails, especially at curves, and 
to relieve the sleepers of undue strain. 

SWITCH-ROPE COUPLING.— D. F. Knapp, 
Portland, Ore. The purpose here is to provide 
a device which can be coupled to an auto- 
matic coupler-bar by removing the knuckle and 
using the same knuckle-pin that holds the 
knuckle in place, and which will also be 
adapted for application to the arch-bar of a 
truck to slue the truck around in line with the 
track. To this end the coupler has a body 
portion and is provided at one end with a link 
to which the switch-rope may be secured. 

RAILWAY-CAR.— C. M. Funk, Centralia, 
Wash. This invention is an improvement in 
railway-cars, and especially in cars designed 
for carrying logs or other heavy timber or com- 
modity which it is desired to bind upon the 
car. By extending the binders under the load 
at the sides of the car the tendency is to bind 
the car together instead of spreading it. 

SIGNAL.— C. R. Dowler, Lamar, Col. This 
"automatic danger-signal" is designed for loca- 
tion near the approach of a railway-bridge at 
places along railway trackage and on public 
roads where through action of high water the 
bridge may be washed away or rendered unsafe 
and places along the track or roadway made 
dangerous by washouts, land-slides, or due to 
other impediment to travel. 

CIRCUIT- BREAKING DEVICE.— C. R. 
Dowler, Lamar, Col. This invention may be 
generically stated as comprehending an electric 
circuit along railway-tracks, suitable signal 
devices, and means in the circuit for breaking 
same, the circuit-breaking devices being adapted 
for automatic operation, through action of pe- 
culiar means, upon undermining action or 
washout of the roadbed embankment or from 
spreading of the rails. 

TORPEDO-PLACER.— W. D. Jackson, Esca- 
naba, Mich. The object of this inventor is to 
provide a device for placing alarm-torpedoes 
on a railway-rail by means of which a person 
on a rear platform of a moving train may 
readily place a torpedo in position to be ex- 
ploded by an approaching train, and thus give 
signal as to a train ahead. 

F'REIGHT-CAR.— W. I. Brock, Erie, Pa. In 
the present patent the invention pertains to 
freight-cars; and the object is the provision 
of a car capable of transporting liquid or solid 
material and which shall be strong in construc- 
tion, durable in use, and adapted to be freely 
and quickly loaded and unloaded. 



Pertaining to Recreation. 

AMUSEMENT DEVICE.— O. Henrichsen, 
New York, N. Y. One purpose of this im- 
provement is to provide a device which will 
represent a miniature race-course and horses, 
automobiles, bicycles, or men racing thereon, 
and, further, to so construct the device that 
the objects will be capable of independent ac- 
tion and so that the speed of the objects will 
be under complete control of the operators, 
since the game can be played by one or more 
persons. 



Pertaining to Vehicles. 

AUTOMATIC BACK-STOP FOR VEHICLES. 

— C. A. Noble, Catskill, N. Y. The invention 
relates to automobiles and other vehicles, and 
more particularly to the means employed for 
preventing the vehicle ascending a hill from 
running backward in case the power is shut 
off. The object is to provide a back-stop for 
vehicles arranged to automatically stop the ve- 
hicle on a slope to prevent it from running 
backward down the same and previous to ob- 
taining any momentum. 



Designs. 

DESIGN FOR A GAS-STOVE.— C. Schaefer, 
Cambridge City, Ind. The designer has pro- 
duced #n ornamental gas-stove. The body is 
round and tapers down sharply from the top 
and sets on a sloping circular base on four 
feet. Body and base when they meet are en- 
circled with a band giving a wasp-like waist 
effect. A shade surmounts the upper part of 
the body and a wire woven pendent is suspend- 
ed therefrom. 

DESIGN FOR A GAME-BOARD.— L. Hud- 
gin, Nogales, Ariz. Ter. The board is laid out 
in 255 squares. At intervals there are six 
patches of ambush trees. At the top of the 
board, there are opposite alternate rows of 
square tunnel holes in the hills that make up 
the landscape of lake and valleys beyond. 
A railway track with switch is at the bottom 
of the board. 

Note.— Copies of any of these patents will 
be furnished by Munn & Co. for ten cents each. 
Please state the name of the patentee, title of 
the invention, and date of this paper. 



390 



Scientific American 



November 24, 1906. 



Business and Personal Wants. 



READ THIS COLUMN CAREFULLY,— You will 
find inquiries for certain classes of articles numbered 
in consecutive order. If you manufacture these goods 
write us at once and we will send you the name and 
address of the party desiring the information. In 
every case it is necessary to give the 
number of the inquiry. 

MCNN & CO. 



Marine Iron Works. Chicago. Catalogue free. 

Inquiry No. 848(1.— Wanted, address of a manu- 
facturer of a machine for making wooden meat skew- 
ers. 

For hoisting engines. J. S. Mundy, Newark, N. J. 

Inquiry No. 8481.— Wanted, manufacturers of 
elastic bands for hose supporters. 

*' U. S." Metal Polish. Indianapolis. Samples free. 

Inquiry No. 8482.— Wanted, manufacturers of 
portable lire-wood saws. 

Handle & Spoke Mchy. Ober Mfg_ Co , 10 Bell St., 
Chagrin Falls, O. 

inquiry No. 8483.— Wanted, the addresses of the 
Birkeland E. Y. de Process, also the apparatus for the 
artificial production of nitrates. 

Sawmill machinery and outfits manufactured by the 
Lane Mfg. Co., Box 13, Montpelier, Vt. 

Inquiry No. 848 I.— Wanted, machinery for card- 
ing, spinning and making twine, rnpe and plaited cord, 
from cotton, mohair and Angora goat hair. 

I sell patents. To buy, or having one to sell, write 
Chas. A. Scott, 719 Mutual Life Building, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Inquiry No. 8485.— Wanted, rotary engine for oil 
or alcohol. 

Headquarters for new and slightly used machinery. 
Liberty Machinery Mart, 138 Liberty Street, New York. 

Inquiry P¥o. 8486. --Wanted, makers of type- 
writer ribbons. 

Metal Novelty Works Co., manufacturers of all kinds 
of light Metal Goods, Dies and Metal Stampings our 
Specialty. 43-47 S. Canal Street, Chicago. 

Inquiry No. 8487.— Wanted, manufacturers of 
devices controlling valves by electricity. 

The celebrated " Hornsby-Akroyd " safety oil engine. 
Koerting gas engine and producer. Ice machines. Built 
by De La Vergne Mch. Co., Ft. E. 138th St. N. Y. C. 

Inquiry No. 84S8.— Wanted, machines for grind- 
ing graphite and pulverizing minerals. 

Manufacturers of patent articles, dies, metal 
st imping, screw machine work, hardware specialties, 
machine work and special Bize washers. Quadriga 
Manufacturing Company, 18 South Canal St., Chicago. 

Inquiry No. 8489.— Wanted, second-hand drop 
hammer heads. 

Inquiry No. 8490.— Wanted, manufacturers of 
electrical heating appliances. 

Inquiry No. 8491.— Wanted, a power punch about 
20 inches to 24 inches throat and punch a % inch hole in 
U> inch iron, new or second hand. 

Inquiry No. 8492.— Wanted, manufacturers of 
croquet supplies. 

Inquiry No. 8493.— Wanted, a mill for shredding 
and grinding alfalfa hay into ground feed. 




}Notes 



and Queries, 



HINTS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

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his turn. 

Buyers wishing to purchase any article not adver- 
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rather than general interest cannot be expected 1 
without remuneration. 

Scientific American Supplements referred to may be 
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Books referred to promptly supplied on receipt of 
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Minerals sent for examination should be distinctly 
marked or labeled. 



(10221) A. H. asks: Please describe 
how salammoniac is obtained or produced. A. 
Salammoniac is prepared from the ammonia 
water of the gas works, by the addition of hy- 
drochloric acid. 

(10222) E. B. S. writes: I have a dy- 
namo that gives 25 volts and will light two 
T(J-eandle-power lights. Must the light be rated 
at 25 or will it light two 110-voIt lamps and 
how many one-candle-power lamps of 100 volts 
will it light? A. Your dynamo, rated at 25 
volts, will do anything which a pressure of 25 
volts will do. but it cannot do work requiring 
100 volts. It cannot light any 110-volt lamps. 
The lamps for this dynamo must be 25-volt 
lamps. 

(10223) E. L. S. asks: What is the 
voltage of the hand-power dynamo in "Experi- 
mental Science" when wound as directed with 
No. 16 wire on fields and No. 18 armature? 
What sizes of wire should be used to give an 
E.M.F. of 25 volts? About how much wire will 
be required in each case? A. The hand-power 
dynamo gives about 3 amperes at 12 volts. The 
voltage would be doubled by doubling the num- 
ber of turns on the field. For the field as de- 
signed, about 5% pounds of No. 16 B. & S. 
wire are required, and for the armature about 
% pound No. 18 is required. 

(10224) J. W. J. asks: Have you 
plans in any of your Supplements of a dy- 
namo that will charge storage battery described 
in Supplement No. 119 5? If so, state what 
number or numbers? A. The dynamo described 
in Supplement No. 600, price ten cents, will 
charge the storage battery of Supplement 
No, 1195, 



(10225) A. W. P. asks: L I am build- 
ing a 10-inch spark coil, and wish to insulate 
it with some kind of oil. I have allowed an 
inch space between primary and secondary, in 
addition to a thin fiber tube enveloping the 
primary. I have tested linseed oil (boiled) and 
kerosene, finding the latter a somewhat better 
insulator ; but the odor is more objectionable. 
Can you advise me on the subject? A. Any 
heavy petroleum oil is a good insulator for a 
coil immersed in it. We do not know how to 
get rid of the odor of any oil. If inclosed in 
a tight box the odor will not be perceived very 
much in the room. 2. I have seen several ac- 
counts of Roentgen rays producing acute der- 
matitis and causing the hair to fall out. Will 
you please explain to what extent this danger 
exists, and what means, if any, may be taken 
to prevent its occurrence? A. The danger of 
producing X-ray burns is very imminent if the 
operator is inexperienced or the tube is not 
properly shielded. The best mode of avoiding 
these burns is to have an apparatus which 
will do its work so quickly as to not produce 
them. It is. however, prudent to cover the 
patient in the parts exposed to the rays with 
a piece of aluminium foil which is grounded 
to a gas or water pipe or has a wire carried 
to earth. 3. In an interrupter where the cir- 
cuit is quickly broken under water, is it neces- 
sary that the contacts be made of platinum? 
A. The same heat is produced in breaking a 
certain current under any circumstances. If 
water is interposed the heat is carried away 
more readily, but the spark and heat of the 
break is able to burn the wire, and platinum 
should be used for the terminals. 

(10226) J. E. P. asks: 1. In substi- 
tuting a button to throw the drop at the cen- 
tral telephone station, how many Mesco dry 
cells will be required instead of the magneto- 
electric machine usually used in small towns? 
A. This depends upon the distance from the 
central, and the number of telephones in series 
if the line is a party line. It may be that a 
small number will do the work. Experiment is 
the solution probably in this case. 2. What 
cells would you consider preferable for this 
charge? A. There are a number of dry cells 
differing but little from each other. We have 
no recommendation to give to one of these over 
another. 

(10227) G. S. T. writes: Will you 
kindly give me your opinion of the following 
statement made here to-day : That a cube of 
iron one inch square, being dropped overboard 
at the greatest known depth of the ocean, 
would not sink to the bottom, but that there 
is a depth where it would be held in suspense. 
A. The cube will drop to the bottom of the 
ocean at the greatest depths. Anything that 
is heavier or has a greater specific gravity than 
salt water sinks to the bottom at all depths. 
The compressibility of sea water is only about 
0.000044 of its bulk per atmosphere of pres- 
sure and not materially denser at great depths ; 
thus at a depth of a mile its density would be 
only about 1-130 greater than at the surface. 
Sand and mud sink to the bottom of the 
ocean at great depths, and shells are dredged 
from the deepest seas. 

(10228) C. R. M. asks: I want to get 
the table for carrying capacity of copper wire 
and German silver wire. I have seen tables j 
run as fine as 26 B. & S. gage, but not any 
finer. I would like to get a table or a way to 
figure for finer wire if possible. V also would 
like something on the size of wire to use on 
motors and dynamos. A. A finer wire than No. 
18 has no carrying capacity, since its use is not 
allowed by the fire underwriters for wiring 
buildings. The wires in dynamos and motors 
are selected on the basis of 2,000 to 3,000 am- 
peres per square inch of cross section in ring 
armatures, and even 4,000 amperes in drum ar- 
matures. In magnet coils only about 2,000 am- 
peres per square inch is allowed. 

(10229) A. L. S. asks: t Ira the en- 
gineering notes of your paper for September 
28, 1901, there is a paragraph on obtaining 
oxygen from the air, stating that it can be 
mixed with water gas for lighting. Is not this 
an explosive mixture? A. A mixture of oxygen 
from the air and street gas is explosive in cer- 
tain proportions; but in the burning of these 
in a jet the fire cannot get at the mixed gases 
till they are ready to be burned, as in the 
calcium light jet. 2. Also, will you kindly give 
the principle of the Nernst lamp? A. The 
Nernst lamp employs a thread of a substance 
like that used in the Welsbach mantle. This, 
heated to a white heat, gives out light. 

(10230) J. N. P. asks: Kindly furnish 
me with explicit definition of the term "equiva- 
lent focus," as applied to a compound photo- 
graphic lens. Give one or more rules, as free 
from mathematics as may be, for accurately 
determining the equivalent focus of such a lens. 
Is the relation of diaphragm aperture to focal 
length of a lens based upon the actual or 
equivalent focus? How can we determine the 
diameter of the circle of illumination of a lens 
upon which its covering power is dependent, 
since this dimension varies with the distance 
between lens and ground glass? A. The equiv- 
alent focus of a photographic combination is 
"the focal length of the single lens which will 
produce the same sized image." This focus 
is measured from the optical center of the 
lens. It is not the "back" focus. Several 
methods are given for measuring the equivalent 
focus in Taylor's "Optics Of Photography," 
price $1 by mail, 



(10231) C. E. D. writes: It seems 
to me that you have not j*et gotten at the 
gist of my query. I did not assert that the 
ice would not freeze to the cold spoon, but 
that it froze to the hot spoon in less time, as 
has been observed, not only by myself, but by 
many others under the conditions described by 
me. My two objects in writing were to bring 
before your readers a pleasant and simple 
cooling confection, very cheap, and also to find 
out why less time was required in connection 
with the hot piece of metal than if a cold 
piece was used. It is my belief that a hot 
spoon shapes the ice and thus gives a better 
contact and when lifted brings with it more 
ice than the cold one. This would seem to me 
to be the proper solution, but it does not alter 
the fact that of the two spoons introduced at 
the same moment, the hot one will have the 
more ice clinging to it when withdrawn. If 
you did not find this phenomenon, then you 
have not carried out the experiment as I have 
regularly done. A. In the question under con- 
sideration, the action of chipped ice and sugar 
mixed upon a hot and a cold spoon, we did 
not intend to misrepresent your position in the 
former letter. We quote : "The ice ought to 
be just as cold and just as liable to attach to 
the cold spoon as to the hot one — in fact, 
more so ; but it does not do it." This cer- 
tainly seems to us to say that the ice does 
not freeze to the cold spoon. As you now say 
you did not intend it so, we do not insist on 
the point. It is clear that nothing can freeze 
to ice till that thing is cooled to the freezing 
point. It is also clear to us that the ice 
which is attached to the hot spoon is not 
frozen to the spoon but simply sticks to it. 
We note that you now do not say "freeze" to 
the hot spoon, as you did in former letters, 
but "the hot one will have the more ice cling- 
ing to it when withdrawn." This is quite true, 
as we observed, but since this clinging ice was 
not frozen to the spoon at all we paid no at- 
tention to it. It simply clung to the spoon by 
surface tension and capillarity. That was all 
there was to that. We froze pieces of ice to 
the cold spoon and to the hot one after it had 
cooled. The hot spoon, as you say, melts the 
pieces of ice into better contact and so they 
adhere to it more closely when it cools. We 
must confess we do not see any mystery or 
puzzle in the action. There are many in- 
stances in which ice freezes to the object with 
which it is in contact, if only a thin film, or 
pellicle of water can come between them. If 
no film of water can be formed between the 
two surfaces no freezing will take place. 
Lumps of dry ice in a place below freezing 
will not freeze together, unless pressure is ex- 
erted to bring them together. 

( 10232 ) A. 0. asks : Can you fur- 
nish drawings and directions for building a 
small generator for charging storage battery 
cells, such as are used on automobiles? Have 
you a revised edition of "Experimental Sci- 
ence" ? I have a copy of the 1890 edition. 
Would like to know where I can buy storage 
battery plates, etc. — something up to date. 
A. Our Supplement No. 600, price ten cents, 
gives plans for a dynamo giving 50 volts and 
about 10 amperes. This would charge twenty 
cells in series. If you have any such number 
of cells to be charged this would answer very 
well for the work. With a smaller number a 
rheostat may be used to take up the excess of 
voltage, and so any number of cells in reality 
may be charged up to twenty, the capacity of 
the machine. We have not the plans for a 
machine especially designed for charging bat- 
teries. 



NEW BOOKS, ETC. 

Three Men in a Motor Car. By Win- 
throp E. Scarritt. New York: E. P. 
Dutton & Co., 1906. 8vo.; 267 pp.; 
16 ill. 
This is an interesting and instructive little 
volume by the foremost apostle of the auto- 
mobile in America. Mr. Scarritt has owned 
and operated more than twenty different makes 
of cars in the past six years, and his descrip- 
tion of his first machine, contrasted with the 
auto of to-day, shows vividly what progress 
has been made. The book deals mainly with 
a trip around Europe in a modern motor car. 
Not only is it full of descriptions of scenery 
and the writer's impressions, but it gives much 
practical advice upon touring and the transport 
of a car to Europe and back. W!:^ en route 
and stopping at the best hotels, the three men 
found that it cost th::n $12 per capita per 
day, all expenses included. A good chauffeur 
can be hired for $5 a day, for which he will 
board himself. The book concludes with chap- 
ters on early American automobiles and auto- 
mobile races, and a prophecy of what is to be 
the future of the automobile in this country. 



INDEX OF INVENTIONS 

For which Letters Patent of the 

United States were Issued 

for the Week Ending 

November 13, 1906, 

AND EACH BEARING THAT DATE 

fSeenoteatend of list about copies of these patents. 



Acetates, making, H. O. Chute 835,501 

Aerophone, L. De Forest 836,015, 836,072 

Air-moistening device, A. Leverle 835,542 

Air tension motor, G. P. Braud 835,774 



Alkaline bicarbonates, manufacturing, J. G. 

Behrens 835,771 

Alloy of iron and hydrogen and producing 

the same, article of, A. Bontempi 835,495 

Amusement apparatus, C. F. Ritchel 835,638 

Animal trap, H. F. Harfst 835,521 

Animal trap, M. J. E. Thorer 835,874 

Annunciator, train, E. A. Everett 835,605 

Arch, reinforced terra cotta, J. Comer-ma. . 835,663 
Ash pan and adjustable hopper for the 

same, collapsible, E. A. Bagby 836,002 

Assorting apparatus, F. F. Backstrom 835,805 

Atomizer, A. C. Eggers 835,882 

Automobile frame, A. B. Morse 835,547 

Bags, means to facilitate the opening of, 

W. L. Fross 835,673 

Baling press, M. C. Nixon 835,632 

Baling press, H. A. Starr 835,646 

Bandage, finger, B. A. Paroubek 835,980 

Barometer, W. C. Plank 835,983 

Bearing, spring neck, P. T. Sundberg 835,739 

Bearing, thrust, G. E. Franquist 835,853 

Bed, folding, J. A. Dewey 835,817 

Beet topper, B. L. Chambers 835,600 

Bellows, J. T. Hill 835,617 

Bicycle, Hornecker & Blankenheim 836,040 

Billiard cue, J. Adorjan 835,489 

Billiard cue tip, F. W. Schroeder 835,736 

Block. See Building block. 

Boat, J. N. Huff 835,530 

Boat, life, O. Brude 835,498 

Boiler flue expander attachment, D. M. & 

A. C. Remson 835,556 

Book leaf or the like, flexible, G. Higginson 835,887 
Bookcase, sectional, Faust & Brolin, 

835,507, 835,508 
Bookcase support, sectional, F. W. Tobey . . 835,582 

Bottle, anti-reflllable, F. Margert 835,862 

Bottle attachment, W. D. Chappelle 836,013 

Bottle attachment, C. L. P. Handy 836,033 

Bottle cleaning and rinsing apparatus, A. 

A. Pindstofte 835,866 

Bottle closure, valved, A. II. Lewis 835,706 

Bottle, Ink or mucilage, J. C. W. Miller.. 835,972 

Bottle, mucilage, R. E. Kuter 835,955 

Bottle, non-refillable, H. J. Mortensen 835,548 

Bottle, non-refillable, G. B. M. Pike 835,553 

Bottle, non-refillable, B. Sharp 835,643 

Bottle, non-refillable, A. C. Way 835,995 

Bottle, non-rofillable^Behrmann & Rodefeld 836,005 
Bottle or other receptacle stopper, L. Gan- 

ueci-Cancellieri et al 835,822 

Bottle stopper, Davis & Stetson 835,783 

Bottle stopper holding device, W. R. Briggs 835,497 

Bowling alley, E. Powers 835,554 

Box opening device, G. C. Weber 835,649 

Brick machine, S. S. Gardiner 835,674 

Bricks, stone, and artificialtone, treating, 

T. D. Ball 835,742 

Briquet molding machines, Simmons & Gar- 
side 835,737 

Bronzing and dust-removing machine, com- 
bined, M. Fritsche 835,883 

Brooder, chicken, C. F. Snover 835,871 

Broom holder, F. H. Bollman 835,725 

Brush holder, tooth, W. E. Lawrence 835,732 

Brush, tooth, C. D. Miller 835,709 

Bucket, clam-shell. W. B. Skinkle 835,567 

Buckle clip, E. F. Gingras 835,752 

Building block, M. Eckley 835,669 

Building block, J. A. Douglass 836,017 

Building construction material, G. F. Thorn 835,717 
Butter fat from cream or milk, extracting, 

G. W. Renyx 835,890 

Can and other vessel, W. J. & G. A. Stew- 
art 835,573 

Capping device, automatic self heating, W. 

F. Hebrank 835,614 

Car bolster, H. M. Pflager et al 835,552 

Car coupling, F. Schatzka 835,560 

Car coupling, J. & J. O. Timms 835,581 

Car draft gear, railway, J. Lange, Jr 835,540 

Car fender, K. M. Stahl 835,571 

Car, hand, G. E. Lunceford 835,965 

Car, railway, Howard & Pflager 835,527 

Car, railway, C. H. Howard 835,52s 

Car, railway, L. J. Harris 835,905 

Car, sleeping, D. S. McEwing 835,799 

Car stake and strap appliance, flat, A. S. 

Seville 835,930 

Car stanchion, adjustable, W. K. Cleveland 835,881 
Cars, sand delivery box for railway, J. 

Roediger 835,91 7 

Carbureter, A. Clement 835,880 

Carbureting air and other gases, automatic 

apparatus for. E, Bouchaud-Praceiq. . . 835,745 

Carousel, H. H. Pattee 835,864 

Carrier, A. P. Boyer 835,780 

Cart, dump, L. H. Young 835,999 

Cast-off hook, R. F. Bartel 836,004 

Caster, C. A. Baker 835,492 

Casting machine, rotary, A. Schiepe 836,053 

Cattle guard, Johnson & Pinckney 835,953 

Centering construction, A. L. A. Himmel- 

wright 835,524 

Chair, J. L. Newell 835,976 

Chest, tool, E. V. Hill 835,616 

Chimney, H. T. Keltie 835,792 

Chimney cap, E. J. Cochran 836,014 

Chopper. See Cotton chopper. 

Churn, L. Soseman 835,568 

Churn, A. L. Blalock 835,846 

Churn dasher, E. A. Franklin 835,672 

Cigar cutter, double, J. L. Obermayer 835,912 

Cigar tip cutter, Hiering & Fuller 836,037 

Circuit, alternating current pole changer, 

E. H. Smythe 835,870 

Clamp, A. F. Bramhall 835,809 

Clevis, slip, W. M. Deming 835,666 

Clock, electric, P. G. Giroud 835,516 

Clothes drier, P. Foy 835,671 

Clothes line hook, E. Miller 835,971 

Clothes pin, C. J. Ingersoll 835,757 

Clutch, Winton & Anderson 835.721 

Clutch mechanism, A. C. Hendricks 836,035 

Coke drawing machine, Cooney & Mitchell. 835,811 

Collar, fold, J. M. Beiermeister 835,594 

Color spraying apparatus, H. Mikorey 835,888 

Color spraying device with Interchangeable 
color receptacle, hand operated, H. 

Mikorey 835,708 

Column cap, J. R. Gray 835,884 

Column for building construction, G. F. 

Thorn 835,718 

Compass, mariner's, F. A. Strassweg 835,840 

Concrete covering for structural members, 

reinforced, R. Anderson 835,723 

Concrete, tension member for reinforced, 

J. Kahn 835,758 

Concrete wall, Little & Gavett 835,827 

Concrete wall construction, E. F. Wieder- 

holdt 835,769 

Concrete work, temporary framing for use 

in, R. Anderson 835,724 

Conveyer, bucket. R. Martin 835,798 

Conveyer, grain drill, F. C. Collins 835,810 

Conveying materials, apparatus for, H. 

Horn 835,526 

Cooking utensil, A. M. Andersen 835,876 

Cooking utensils, mantle or jacket for, G. 

Sesseli 835,715 

Copying machine, R. Sehweers 835.561 

Corn -husking machine, N. Malone 835.707 

Cotton chopper, A. II. Council 835,664 

Cotton linters, float drive for, J. w. Kim- 

brougb 835,538 

Cotton picker, R. W. Ivy 835,949 

Cotton press, H. A. Baker 835,897 

Couch and bed. convertible, L. Williams. . 835.770 

Counter seat, T. Truax 835,992 

Coupling pocket, W. E. Coffin S35.726 

Crate, C. W. Stevens 835,921 

Crate, H. L. & IT. Brockschmidt 835,932 

Crate, collapsible, J. G. Penrod 835,733 

Crate, egg, R. K. Gregory S30.029 

Crib, G. E. Easley 835,819 

Cuff holder, F. W. Barrett 835,593 

Cultivator attachment, L. R. Greer 835,076 

Cultivator replanting attachment, T. C. 

Swartz 835,988 

Cultivator, riding, E. Stevenson 835,572 

Chrtain fixture, H. M. Sturgis 835,570 

Cut-out, R. A. Baldwin 835.493 

Damper, N. Pruitt 835,915 

Dental tool, J. E. Argue 836,001 

Dental trial plates, instrument for soften- 
ing, J. Miller 835,628 

Detinning, Goldschmidt & Weber. 836,028 

Diamond sawing machine, W. Loesser 8.35,964 

Die press, G. Goldman 835,753 

Disk drill, J. M, Pierce ,,,.,,, 836,051 



November 24, 1906. 



Scientific American 



39 1 




Star' 

Automatic 
Cross 
Feed 



Foo* ana 
Power 
Screw Cutting 

Lathes 



FOR FINE, ACCURATE WORK 

Send for Catalogue B. 

SENECA FALLS IHFQ. CO. 

695 (Vater Street, 
Seneca Falls, N.Y., U.S.A. 



Engine and Foot Lathes 

MACHINE SHOP OUTFITS, TOOLS AND 
SUPPLIES. BEST MATERIALS. BEST 
WORKMANSHIP. CATALOGUE FREE 

SEBASTIAN LATHE CO.. 120 Culvert St., Cincinnati. 0. 

MOTOR THATjS A MOTOR 

For household use, dentists, jewelers, etc. Any kind of 
chuck can be screwtd on the spindle ends. Polisher on 
one side, grinder on the other. The A. ROSENBERG 
FAUCET MOTOR runs in the right direction tor polish- 
ing and grinding. 5 inches in diameter, 4J^ inch wheel. 
No wrench or other tool needed to take wheels or chucks 
off. Price of motor $5. Right and left-hand chucks I'oc. 
each. Interchangeable bearings 2Sc. each. Send 10c, for 
booklet. Agents wanted. (Established 1894.) 




Copyright 1908 

by 

A. Ro SENDERS 



THE A. ROSENBERG MOTOR AND MFG. CO. 
Baltimore, Md., V. S. A. 



ROTARY PUMPS AND ENGINES. 

Their Origin and Development.— An important series of 
papers giving a historical resume oi' the rotary pump 
and engine from 1588 and illustrated with clear draw- 
ings showing the construction of various forms of 
pumps and engines. 38 illustrations. Contained in 
Supplements 1109, 1110, 1111. Price 10 cents 
each. For sale by Munn & Co. and all newsdealers. 

A~COOD IMYESTMENT 

For $1.75 we will send by express (not prepaid), 
complete N. D. Outfit with full instruc- 
tions for learning 

TELEGRAPH 
OPERATING. 

A fascinating study 
that will enable you 
to earn good wages 
Send for our catalog. 

**" l llmnH— M^^p Established 1879. 
Bunnell & Co.. Inc. 20 Park Place, New York 

ORIGINAL BARNES 





Positive 
Feed 



Upright Drills 





10 to 50-inch Swing 



Send for J>riU Catalogue. 

W. F. & JN0. BARNES CO. 

(Established 1872) 
1999 Ruby St., Rocktord, III. 



The Kickdrive Circular Saw 

Is a simple power for light work ot the 
kindsmostdone by carpenters, cabinet, box, 
pattern and picture-frame makers, and wood 
workers generally, besides engravers and 
electrotypers. This Machine has a strong, 
solid iron frame and steel shaft; is thoroughly 
well-built and suitable for various kinds of 
work, as ripping, cross-cutting, grooving, 
etc. Can be operated sitting or standing. We 
also make all kinds of foot power devices. 

MATER SLOTKIN 
310-313 Canal St., New Tork. 



ELECTRICAL NOVELTIES 

Model Electric Railways 
Motors and Dynamos, 

Track, Switches, 
Bridges, Etc. 

Send for Catalogue B. Perfect Working Models. 
The Carlisle & Finch Co.. 233 East Clifton Ave., Cincinnati, 0. 





A 25-Watt Dynamo $5.00 

Wrought-iron fields, rocking brush 
holder, compound winding giving 
steady voltage. Can be used as 
either shunt, series or compound. 
Runs equally well as a motor. 
First-class in every way. Send for one. 

E. Q. WILLIAMS 
5S8 S. Clinton St., Syracuse, N. T. 

A Homemade 100=Mile 
Wireless Telegraph Set 

Read Scientific American Supplement 1615 for a 
thorough, clear description, by A. Frederick Collins, of 
the construction of a 100-mile wireless telegraph outfit. 
Numerous, adequate diagrams accompany the text. 
Price 10 cents by mail. Order from your newsdealer, or 
from 

MUNN & CO., 301 Broadway, New York 



Keystone Well Drills 




for Artesian and Ordinary Water 
Wells; Mineral Prospecting and 
Placer Testing for Dredgers ; 
Deep Drilling for Oil and Gas ; 
Contractor's Blast Hole Drilling, 
River and Harbor Exploration, 
etc. Our five catalogs are text- 
books in these Imps. 

KEYSTONE WELL WORKS 
Beaver Falls, Pa. 



How To Increase 

Your Business 




READ carefully, every 
week, the Business 
and Personal Wants 

column in the 

Scientific American 

This week it will be found 
on page 390. 

Some week you will be 
likely to find an inquiry 
for something that you 
manufacture or deal in. 
A prompt reply may bring 
an order. 
Watch it Carefully 




Dispensing device, P. A. Frimand ....836,606 

Display cabinet, D. F. Greenawalt 835,611 

Display rack, card, I. Y. Henricks 835,615 

Distillation of woods, retort for the, P. 

Brown 835,74,7 

Diving apparatus, T. Iwanami 835,950 

Door controlling device, double, W. B. Reis. 835,984 

Door hanger, S. J. Reynolds 835,734 

Draft equalizer, S. E. Bailor 835,657 

Draft equalizer, 6. Sundholm 835,922 

Drier. See Clothes drier. 

Dry kiln, L. Goebel 835,519 

Drying apparatus, feed mechanism for, H. 

Baetz 835,843 

Drinking fountain, chicken, Neu & Hahn.. 835,551 
Dye and making same, azo, Kroeber & Jag- 

erspacher, reissue 12,557 

Dye and making same, blue azo, T. Kroe- 
ber, reissue 12,556 

Dye and making same, monoazo, T. Kroeber 835,539 
Dye and making same, monoazo, T. Kroe- 
ber, reissue 12,555 

Dye and making same, triphenylmethane, 

Herzberg "& Scharfenberg 835,682 

Dye, making a cold, C. Henry 835,754 

Dyeing apparatus, S. W. Cramer 835,813 

Dyeing, etc., apparatus for, T. A. S. Wood 835,927 

Eaves trough, 6. Cassen 836,012 

Egg tester, J. L. Ritter .■ 835,639 

Ejector, H. Barnett 835,658 

Electric accumulator, Schmitt & Fabre.... 835,642 
Electric conduits, bend, elbow, and other 

angle piece for, Edwards & Brown.... 835,504 
Electric current regulator, O. H. & A. F. 

Pieper 835,763 

Electric heater, F. M. Vogel 835,841 

Electric interrupter, L. G. Nilson, reissue.. 12,558 

Electric light, portable, C. Hubert 835,529 

Electroplating apparatus, A. J. Leaver.... 835,960 
Elevator safety appliance, S. Cunningham.. 835,665 

Embalming fluid, I. R. Burns 835,781 

Engines, device for regulating the electric 

spark of gasolene, H. O. Phillips 835,982 

Envelop, M. M. Cohn 835,850 

Exercising device, hand, J. E. Thompson.. 835,873 

Explosive engine, J. F. Jensen 835,908 

Extension table, C. H. Goller 835,609 

Extension table, J. C. Holm 835,790 

Extension table, J. Mitchell 835,973 

Eyeglass connection, S. N. Stone 836,057 

Fabrics, etc., manufacture of woven, J. 

Florin 835,510 

Fan, D. T. Kendrick 835,761 

Fan, pneumatic, J. L. Creveling 835,782 

Faucet, J. H. Semmons 835,837 

Feed water heater for locomotive boilers, 

W. A. Moffat 835,630 

Fence post, J. W. Westlake 835,719 

Fence post, G. F. Greene 835,885 

Fence post, J. Kempf , Jr 836,043 

Fence stay, W. J. La Grange 835,956 

Fence stretcher, woven wire, H. J. Ferris. 835,786 
Fertilizer spreader attachment, J. S. Sams. 835,641 

Fertilizers, making, A. Vasseux 835,692 

Filing case, H. Falvey 835,670 

Finger cot, A. P. Witten 835,803 

Finger stretching apparatus, W. J. Mennes 835,968 

Fire escape, J. C. Sharp 835,985 

Fire escape, Bostwick & Johnson 836,008 

Fire pot for furnaces and stoves, J. P. 

Kolla 835.686 

Firearm, C. Hansen 835,679 

Firearm, T. C. Johnson 835,825 

Fish hook, H. F. Strehlow 835,766 

Fish hook, F. J. Hipp 836,038 

Fishing float, F. E. Chester 835,500 

Fishing reel, L. B. Ross 835,557 

Floor drain, dry pan, J. P. Farley 835,852 

Floor scraper, C. F. Swenson 835.690 

Floor, wall, or ceiling plate, L. G. Olmsted 835,635 
Flooring, machine for grinding mosaic, W. 

H. Mooney et al 835,631 

Fly shield, W. F. Elliott 836,021 

Foods, device for retaining heat in, F. S. 

Gouldthrite 835,857 

Furnace fuel feeder or stoker, Jenkins & 

Thackwell 835,952 

Furnace or oven, H. Gehnrich 835,945 

Furniture leg, R. E. Slesnick 835,738 

Fuse, O. C. Hoffmann 835,618 

Game counter and card cabinet, J. O. 

Bewan 835,844 

Garbage furnace, B. Boulger 835,699 

Garbage, treating, J. W. Sewell 835,689 

Garment supporter, M. A. Wells 835,996 

Gas analysis, apparatus for, E. Schatz . . . . 835,559 

Gas engine, T. N. Kellett 835,759 

Gas, generating, C. Ellis 835,506 

Gas generator, acetylene, J. F. Ormiston.. 835,913 

Gas lighter, electric, G. Giorgi 835,946 

Gas, manufacturing, P. Schmidt 836,054 

Gas producer, A. M. Levin 835,626 

Gas producer, L. Boutillier 835,847 

Gaseous fuel burner, R. J. Miner 835,629 

Gate, J. T. Kelly 835,760 

Gate, A. J. Shrope 835,987 

Gate, A. E. Becker 836,061 

Glass, method of and machine for making 

wire, N. Franzen 835,511 

Glass press, E. J. Hayes 835,613 

Goggles, E. B. Meyrowitz 835,828 

Golf club, W. Robertson 835,735 

Grain shelling and hulling device, O. D. 

Camargo 836,011 

Graphophone, J. J. Hammer 836,032 

Hair dressing and shampooing device, R. 

C. Dalton 835,814 

Hammer, pneumatic, Carnahan & Murphy.. 835,936 
Handle. See Saw handle. 

Harness attachment, I. McKnight 835,549 

Harrow, F. P. Bowman 835,879 

Harrow, M. E. Campany 835,935 

Harrow and weed cutter, combined rotary, 

C. W. Keen 835,537 

Harrow or cultivator, adjustable, S. I. 

Merwin 835,970 

Hay carrier, L. Willour 835,653 

Hay press, H. M. Tallman, reissue 12,559 

Heating apparatus, J. H. Koons 835,954 

Heel for shoes, detachable, G. Giovana.... 835,515 

Hip strap line holder, S. E. Harsh 835,681 

Hoisting apparatus, J. B. & H. E. Millard 835,829 
Hoisting apparatus, car for, J. B. & H. E. 

Millard 835,830 

Hoof trimmer, W. S. Casterlin 835,900 

Hook, E. Carlson 835,937 

Horn support, R. L. Hammond 835,678 

Horse checking apparatus, F. C. Jacobs.... 835,620 

Horse, folding, L. Nolan 835,977 

Horseshoe, C. G. Wilfong 835,875 

Horseshoe, M. D. & H. H. Mudge 835,974 

Horseshoe, nailless, J. Weill 835,650 

Hose nozzle, F. H. Hartwell 835,612 

Hot air generator, C. L. Bowne 836,009 

Hot water supply and heating system, do- 
mestic, Cowles & Simpson 835,812 

Humidifying apparatus, J. J. Smith.835,894, 835,895 

Hydrator, A. S. Crocker 836,066 

Hydrocarbon burner, F. C. Loring 835,627 

Hydrocarbon burner, G. Hochstrasser 835,683 

Ice cream freezer, J. H. Genter 835,514 

Insect destroyer, W. H. Pool 836,052 

Insulating material and manufacturing 

same, G. Kelly 835,685 

Insulator for trolley roads, section, C. M. 

Means 835,909 

Interest bearing instrument of obligation, 

C. H. Davis 835,706 

Internal combustion engine, F. W. Brady.. 835,773 

Ironing board, W. D. Freytag 836,025 

Jack, N. J. Schumacher 835,835 

Kneading and mixing machine, F. Aesch- 

bach 835,655 

Knitting machine stitch transferring de- 
vice, J. Vaughan 836,058 

Lacework, M. Jansen 835,533 

Lacing fastener and bow holder, combined 

shoe, H. H. Petty 835,981 

Lacing tip, H. L. Hiller 835,824 

Ladder round, S. J. Lamora 835,957 

Lamp, electric candle, C. K. Decherd 835,816 

Lamp, electric incandescent, F. M. F. 

Cazin 835,938 

Lamp, gas, G. E. Hulse 835,705 

Lamp lighting and extinguishing apparatus, 

J. W. White 835,652 

Lamps, cap for signal, F. L. Gilman...... 835,608 

Lamps, gas generating attachment for oil, 

L. N. Iuppenlatz 835,859 

Lantern, tubular, C. Bergener 835,806 

Last, H. F. Browne 835,746 




Any Size or Shape 

Steel Towers 

Any Height 
The Baltimore Cooperage Co. 

MANUFACTURERS 

BALTIHORE CITY, MD. 

CATALOGUE GRATIS 



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Tbesimplest, smallest, safest, neat- 
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made is the Rawlings Patent 
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Fan. Can be installed in a few 
minutes. No operating expenses. 
Made of high-grade brass. Price 
U-in. Fan with complete coun. 
lings, $10.00. 

E. GINTZEL ttfiSQOM- 

150 Nassau St., New Tork City 





A MONEY MAKER 

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Best, Fastest, Simplest, Cheapest 
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THE PETTYJOHN CO, 

615 N. 6th Street, Terre Haute, Ind. 



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Catalogue 
Prices 



All teachers' and dealers' discounts now given 
to the public on violins, guitars, mandolins, 
and other stringed Instruments (special dis- 
count also on flutes and clarinets) 10 days' 
trial onanylnstrumentbefore you decideto 
buy. Write today for free catalogue No.ll. 
WM. G. LEWIS & SON (Estuh. 1869) 
830 Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 



Send for interesting advance information about 

The 

Royal 

Tourist 

Motor Cars 

THE ROYAL JIOTOR CAR CO., CLEVELAND 

Member A. L. A. M. 



STEAM TURBINES. —THEIR CON- 

struction. Operation and Commercial Application. 
Scientific American Supplements 1306. 1307, 
1308, 1423, 1400, 1447, 1370, 1372. The 

articles have all been prepared by experts in steam 
engineering. Price 10 cents each, hy mail. Munn & 
Co., 361 Broadway, New York City, and all newsdealers. 



It's a Fine Piece of Work 

in itself. That's the best reason why all 
the work it touches has the stamp of 
quality and perfection. 

(ioodell's Hand Drill 

has new 20th century features. Double 
gears. Two speeds. One chuck. Capacity 
to % inch. Send for catalogue. 

GOODEJLL-PRATT COMPANY 
Greenfield, Mass. 





Asbestos and Magnesia Products 



STEAM PIPE AND BOILER COVERINGS. 
ASBESTOS PACKING (For all purposes). 
ASBESTOS FIRE-RESISTING CEMENTS. 
ASBESTOS BUILDING MATERIALS. 

>*. W. JOHNS-MANYILLE CO. 

New York, Milwaukee, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Pittsburg, Cleveland, New Orleans, Kansas 
City, Minneapolis, Dallas, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, London. 



■J-M" ASBESTOS ROOFING. 
ASBESTOS FABRICS. 
KEYSTONE HAIR INSULATOR. 
ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES. 



£jfpyj P© r Cent. SENT FOR EXAMINATION 

c\it in price 



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392 



Scientific American 



November 24, 1906. 



Lathe tool holder, G. T. Reiss 835,784 

Leather, etc., die for cutting and punching, 

F. Mertinz 835,969 

Lettering guide, R. Hanssen 835,680 

Level, L. O. Sheflott 835,986 

Level, plumb, W. P. Foster 836,024 

Lifting jack, grain dump, R. L. Rhea 835,891 

Link closing device, W. N. Appleton 835,696 

Link forming machine, W. N. Appleton.... 835,697 
Ijinoleum, manufacture of, A. A. Godfrey.. 835,518 

Liquid, purifying, W. Hasenbach 836,034 

Locomotive tenders, coal gate for, F. B. 

Briggs 835,779 

Locomotives, vehicles, or machinery, appa- 
ratus for recording the movements of, 

J. F. H. Collet 835,901 

Loom, kindergarten, J. C. Tyndall. ., 835,767 

Loom picker, L. Z. Forgues 836,073 

Loom warp stop motion, J. T. Bolton 835,807 

Magnet, lifting, A. C. Eastwood 835,942 

Mail bag catching and delivering apparatus 
and semaphore mast, combined, W. 

Davidson 835,503 

Mail carrying apparatus, H. E. Hall 835,677 

Mail delivery box, T. B. Gray 835,675 

Mailing machines, stencil for automatic, 

O. A. Brown 835,700 

Malt kiln, P. G. Toepfer 835,583 

Measuring apparatus, molten metal, S. G. 

Goss 835,520 

Measuring instrument, electrical, F. Holden 835,755 

Measuring machine, C. A. D. Burk 835,933 

Measuring machine, fabric, J. A. Cox 835,601 

Mechanical movement, J. A. Frenier 835,512 

Metallic tie and rail fastener, J. FmBp.r. . . . 835,856 
Metals, electrolytic process of making bases 

of the alkali, earth, Brochet & Ranson. 835,661 

Metals, finishing, A. K. Beckwith 835,659 

Microtelephone, A. A. Lind 835,860 

Milk cooler, H. F. Segert 835,893 

Milking machine with electromagnetic clos- 
ing device, A. Sabroe 835,918 

Mill. See Ore crushing mill. 

Mine drill, A. M. Rlckerd 835,832 

Mining, breast board for underground, J. 

Stockfleth 835,839 

Mixing machine, E. Ruttkamp 835,558 

Molding machine, E. L. Martin 835,967 

Monotype perforating machine keyboard, A. 

Wadsworth 835,993 

Motor starter, automatic, W. F. Hendry . . 836,036 
Movement cure apparatus, J. H. Kellopg... 835,622 

Musical instrument, N. B. Lawson 835,958 

Musical instrument, automatic, W. K. L. 

Dickson 835,604 

Musical instrument, automatic self playing 

and teaching, E. E. Barakat 836,003 

Musical instruments, blower for, I. H. 

Spencer 835,570 

Musical instruments, tracker bar for pneu- 
matic players for, G. P. Brand 835,776 

Nail box, J. Schuster 835,713 

Nozzle, fluid, Isaacs & Speed 835,619 

Nozzle for leaching vats, F. W. Allen 835,928 

Nut lock, E. P. Dilley 835,940 

Oil cloth, ornamenting, A. Leisegang 835,541 

Oil cup, J. Huber 835,948 

Oil feed device, H. O. & H. E. Spade 835,569 

Oil separator for steam pipes, R. Schulz... 835,919 
Oils obtained by destructive distillation of 
resinous substances, purifying pitch and 

other ethereal, A. Hesse 835,907 

Oiler, J. R. Dean 835,815 

Ordnance, telescopic sight for, A. Konig... 835,625 

Ore crushing mill, roller, W. E. Wild 835,694 

Oscillation responsive device, L. De Forest, 

836,070, 836,071 

Outlet gate and hopper, W. A. Bishop 835,595 

Package tie, C. H. Amann 835,656 

Packing, engine or machine, G. W. Beldam 835,744 
Packing for rotary machines, labyrinth, R. 

Schulz 835,836 

Paper, colorably coating, E. J. & E. Taylor 835,579 

Paper gage, W. Smith 836,055 

Paper hanger's straight-edge holder, A. 

Scbipke' 835,892 

Papering board and bucket holding attach- 
ment therefor, E. B. Lamb 835,826 

Pavement mixture, W. S. Wilkinson 836,059 

Peat turf, production of half stuff from, 

C. Esser 836,069 

Percolator, H. C. Wright 835,804 

Phonograph horn support, L. P. Halladay. 836,031 

Photography, C. E. C. Kinney 835,623 

Piano, J. H. Taylor 835,580 

Picture frames, protective cover for, F. L. 

Brown : 836,010 

Pie making machine, J. C. Hutchison 835,756 

Pipe pailling device, R. G. Coates 836,065 

Planer, crank, Lutter & Gies 835,543 

Plant bed steaming appliance, J. H. L. 

Johnson 835,621 

Planter, corn, C. W. Robinson 835,640 

Planter, corn, A. Dubach 835,941 

Planter, cotton, J. H. Goodwin.. 835,610 

Planter, hand seed, T. J. Banks 835,743 

Plastering, composition of matter for, B. 

E. Noble 835,831 

Plow, W. H. Williams '. 835,997 

Plow attachment, E. Wilke 835,695 

Plow fender, R. R. Jones 835,684 

Plow, potato, J. M. Drake 836,018 

Plow, subsoil, E. Bippart 836,007 

Pneumatically actuated devices, means for 

automatically controlling, G. P. Brand. 835,777 

Poke, animal, P. O. Holmgren 836,039 

Post hole digger, W. J. Wall 835,994 

Powder' cup, tooth, I. W. Lyon 835,861 

Press, P. L. Simpson 835,566 

Printing device, W. C. Grant 835,903 

Printing press, C. L. Post 835,637 

Printing press inking fountain, M. F. Deh- 

ler 835,784 

Projectile, J. B. Semple 835.714 

Pruning shears, V. W. Kelly 835,791 

Puller. See Stump puller. 

Pulley block, J. Bass 835,877 

Pulley, loose, C. Moore 835,546 

Punch, belt, F. E. Walden 835,740 

Punching, stamping, and like machine, A. 

Wilzin 835,998 

Rail joint, W. C. Weaver 835,587 

Rail joint, N. Durand 835,668 

Rail tie; and chair, E. Butler 836,064 

Railway' and other carriages, automatic 

coupling for, R. B. Parsons 835,914 

Railway and tramway points, etc., means 

or appliance for operating, W. Taylor. 835,896 

Railway crossing, H. A. Baker 835,898 

Railway crossing, noiseless, G. D. Shoop... 835,565 

Railway, inclined, E. C. Bruen 835,662 

Railway signaling, Jacobs & Insell 835,951 

Railway switch, J. Biggs 835,845 

Railway . switch mechanism, T. Jackson.... 835,532 

Railway tie, V. D. Sumner 835,716 

Railway tie, J. S. Killen 835,730 

Railway tie plate, F. A. Delano 835,002 

Rams, air feed for hydraulic, A. H. Franc- 
fort : 835,855 

Receptacle, W. H. Smith 835,645 

Reflector, R. Straubel 835,648 

Ringing and listening key, operator's, W. 

W. Dean 836,067 

Rolling mill, cylinder, H. Ehrhardt 835,505 

Rolls, W. Mountain 836,047 

Roofing, ready made, W. J. Moeller 835,889 

Rotary oscillating' reciprocating engine, W. 

D. Williams 835,741 

Roundabout, M. J. Doner 836,016 

Rubber and fiber containing bodies, prepar- 
ing, F. M. Ekert 836.06$ 

Rubber cutting machine, C. L. Higgins.... £35,622 

Rudder, jury, R. Olsen 835,800 

Safe and desk, combination, H. Reinke.... 835,555 

Sash balance, window, J. G. Hall 835,788 

Sash holder, D. W. Nuttall 835,878 

Sash, window, O. M. Otte ... . 83fi,88S 

Saw, crosscut, F. W. Mcintosh 836,048 

Saw handle, M. H. Toomey 835,fi84 

Saws, adjustable fence for, T. Bemis 836,006 

Scale, spring. ess dial, F. H. Brown 835,81)0 

Scale, truck, E. L. Gage 83fl,0T<l 

Screen, D. D. Pinkham 835,636 

Screw clamp, temper, P. H. Mack 835,545 

Sealing- caps from vessels, means for re- 

moVihg, ' J.' ' A! Hicks ....'..'..'.' . 835,789 

Search, light, M. Carlisle 835,702 

Seed separator, S. P. Glunt 835,517 

Seeding device, J. M. Opper 835,979 

Sewing machine edge guide, L. B. Bagley. 835,491 



Saves 20% to 5095 on Power 

In nearly every plant one-half the total power goes to waste - it is eaten up in friction. 

A series of tests made by Prof. C. H. Benjamin, of the Case Scientific School, of 

Cleveland, Ohio, at sixteen different works, proved that it took over 50 per cent, of the 

total power of the plant to drive the shafting alone, when run in babbitted bearings. That 

meant 50 per cent, of the power was unpro- 
ductive. It showed for the 




Peninsular Self=0iling 
Roller Bearings 

an average saving in friction over the babbitted 
bearing as follows: 43.2 per cent, for the l^f 
inch shaft; 73.6per cent, for the 2 T % inch shaft; 
and 76.6 per cent, for the 2\\ inch shaft. 
OUR GUARANTEE: 
Without knowing anything whatever about 
your plant, we guarantee, if you are now using 
babbitted bearings, to save 10 per cent, of your 
total power by replacing them with Peninsular 
Self-Oiling Roller Bearings. 



For any reliable firm we will glad . 
Peninsular Self-Oiling Roller Bearings and allow tbem to b. 



10 per cent, is assured; 50 percent, has been achieved, and 
never have we fallen below a saving of 20 percent. 
ladly put the claim to the test by equipping a shaft, or. if desired, their entire plant with 
" i to be run for 30 to 60 days on trial. If they fail to sub- 
stan iate our claim, the bearings can be returned at our expense. 

Peninsular Self-Oiling Roller Bearings, besides what they save in power, save enormously in belting and 
general wear and tear. Running in a bath of oil. they are non-heating and not a drop of oil is lost— a saving in oil of 50 
per cent, over a babbitted bearing. These bearings are adapted to works of any character. 

Write for Our Book on "POWER-SAVING" 

eivinr official tests comparing relative efficiency of the babbitted bearings with the Peninsular Self-Oiling Roller 
Beatings in reducing friction; also containing letters from companies engaged in all branches of manufacture now using 

Peninsular Self-Oiling Roller Bearings. 

Unless we save io per cent, of your total power they can be returned at our experts. 
GEORGE A. McKEEt & CO., Ltd., Transmission Dept.,, JACKSON, MICH. 



907 MODEL 




The car of flmallflat eiwt .Mid greikLfml a crwiTtpllsh tricot. 
Holda world's record tot tftficietivy, economy and eiitiur- 
&Tica r Stnart to look nt. Rmiple kmpemt^. Economics! 
to maintain. 4 K. P. atr^ooJeri, Reliable under all 
wndl turns, ilIE Tvads* Stimuli 3U miles a» hour, i"omaKl 
and revsrae* Catalog free. 

ORIENT 

FRICTION DRIVE 

BUCKBOARDS 

PEUVERYCAR 

It does the work of three teams. A motor cot of 
proven effitiency for Parcel aud Express Delivery. An 
ideal car for every kiiid of business aud every form of 
merchandise, in cities, towns and villages. Alakes money 
by saving time — prompt delivery makes satisfied cus- 1 
tomers. Few parts an d every part strong. 4 H.P. Air- 
cooled. Weight 610 lbs. Capacity 600 lbs. including 
"4 to ISmilesanhouron ordinary roads 
Active agents desired in unas- 
signed territory. Write for dis- 
counts and agency terms. 
Waltham manufacturing Co. 
Waltham, Maas., U. S. A. 




■You Cam 
Whitewash a SS 6 t£ e ter 

One man can apply whitewash or cold water paint to 

10,000 Square Feet of Surface in One Day 

and do better work than with a brush. It is also adapted for 
spreading disinfectants, destroying Insect pests 
and diseases on trees, vegetables 
and other plants, extinguishing 
fires, washing 1 window's, wagons, 
oil other purposes. The mac nine is 
real t v a little water works system 
on whet la because the easy move- 
ment of the pump develops a 
t'' & ' 7 li [ JKV>ttt$k.1 \ pressure exceedingSOpounds and 
- BBmE^M^ EJJmlL \ will raise the liquid more than 
S flRl'1G|Ktj\| **0 f ee * ^nove its own level. The 
^■^^^TzvRPj2Bt1\ P r °g res8 J 12 gallon size, 
l 




only $21.00; the '20 galka 
size $30:0. '. It will last a 
lifetime and pays for itstlf 
the iirst year. Other types 
of machines sold as low as 
.00 and $10.00. Write for 
detailed description. 



lOayton Supply Co., Dept. R, Dayton, 0.| 



J. LLEWELLYN KING 

SHIPBUILDER 

ELIZABETHPORT. N. J.. U. S. A. 

Builder of Stern Wheel, Paddle and Screw 
Steamers, Torpedo Boats and Barges of all 
kinds in Steel. .£> j& £? A Specialty made of 
South American and Alaskan River 
Boats, Launches, Dories, Canoes, Etc. 



j£±£4ci 



"DOLLARS 1 

IN 

DIRT" . 



'FREE BOOK 



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.which tells all about the! 

* science of real estate 1 nvest-f 

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Suite 3T8, Sfl W. 4*d St, New York CTfr 




SPRINGFIELD ABRASIVE POLISHING 
WHEELS AND BLOCKS. 

Used for polishing machinery, cutlery 
and edge tools of all kinds and for re- 
moving rust spots from highly polished 
metal. Makes a very smooth surface 
without marring. Containing rubber 
which gives it the resilient effect. Made 
with either Emery or Carborundum in 
different grades. Write for price list 
and special trade discounts. 

The Springfield Tire and Rubber Co., 

Spfing field. Ohio, U.S. A. 



Alcohol 

Its Manufacture 
Its Denaturization 
Its Industrial Use 

The Cost of Manufacturing Denatur- 
ized Alcohol In Germany and German 
Methods of Denaturization are discussed 
by Consul-General Frank H. Mason in 
Scientific American Supplement 1550. 

The Use, Cost and Efficiency of Alcohol 
as a Fuel for Gas Engines are ably ex- 
plained by H. Diederichs in Scientific 
American Supplement 1596. Many clear 
diagrams accompany the text. The article 
considers the fuel value and physical pro- 
perties of alcohol, and gives details of the 
alcohol engine wherever they may be dif- 
ferent from those of a gasoline or crude 
oil motor. 

In Scientific American Supplement 
15S1 the Production of Industrial Alcohol 
and its Use in Explosive Hotors are 

treated at length, valuable statistics being 
given of the cost of manufacturing alcohol 
from farm products and using it in engines. 

French flethods of Denaturization con- 
stitute the subject of a good' article pub- 
lished in Scientific American Supple- 
ment 1599. 

How Industrial Alcohol is Hade and 
Used is told very fully and clearly in No. 3, 
Vol. 95, of the Scientific American. 

The Most Complete Treatise on the Mo- 
dern Manufacture of Alcohol, explaining 
thoroughly the chemical principles which 
underlie the process without too many 
wearisome technical phrases, and describ- 
ing and illustrating all the apparatus re- 
quired in an alcohol plant is published in 
Scientific American Supplements 1603, 
1604 and 1605. The article is by L. Baudry 
de Saunier, the well-known French autho- 
rity. 

In Supplements 1607, 1608, 1609 we pub- 
lish a digest of the rules and regulations 
under which the U. S. Internal Revenue 
will permit the manufacture and denatura- 
tion of tax free alcohol. 

The Sources of Industrial Alcohol, 
that is the Farm Products from which al- 
cohol is distilled, are enumerated by Dr. 
H. W. Wiley in Scientific American 
Supplements 161 i and 1612 and their 
relative alcohol content compared. 

Any Single Number of the Scientific 
American or Supplement will be sent for 
10 cents by mail. The entire set of papers 
above listed will be mailed on receipt of 
$1.30. 

Order from your newsdealer or from the 
publishers, 

MUNN <& COMPANY 
361 Broadway, New York 



Sewing machines, guard for inseam, C. I. 

Puller jl 835,513 

Shade for uluflows or the like, adjustable, 

J. J. Dennis 835,603 

Shafts, means for securing' tools upon, Ev- 
ans & Taylor 835,820 

Shelf supporting bracket, adjustable, E. 

Melchior 836,045 

Shingle, W. S. Divver 835,818 

Shingle machine, J. D. O'Brien 835,633 

Shoe cobblers, finishing machine for the use 

of, A. W. Wahluuist a35,586 

Shoe polisher, A. P. Bigford 835,660 

Shutter, rolling or flexible, J. Cahill 835,599 

Sign letter, electric, C.- A. Chase 835,848 

Skate runner grinding fixture, C. L. Joy. . . 835,535 

Skirt binding, C. P. Schlegel 835,834 

Slot or vending machine and coin testing 
mechanism therefor, coin controlled, L, 

J. Disser 835,851 

Snap fastener, W. S. Richardson 835,867 

Soil working machine, L. F. Bassett 835,929 

Soldering tool, S. Kohn 835,794 

Sound reproducer, T. H. Macdonald 835,544 

Sparring apparatus, C. Lindsley 835,796 

Speed controller, multivoltage, A. D. Du 

Bois 836,019 

Speed of any and all machines, device for 

regulating the, Oierhart & Hansen 835,607 

Spike, J. W. Ford 8,<!5,944 

Spout, flexible, J. J. Gerber 836,027 

Spring jack switch, C. H. North 836,049 

Sprocket wheel, E. P. Keppelmann 836,044 

Stalk cutter and barrow, combined, Carpen- 
ter & Fonville 835,499 

Stamp, F. Wenke 835,651 

.Ktimip, hand, L. K. Scotford 835,562 

-Ktanehkjti, P- F. Miller 835,911 

Station indicator, I. C. Bandman 835,592 

Steam boiler, M. Connor 835,749 

Steam boiler, P. Ssiway 835,872 

Steam generators, feeding arrangement for, 

C. Renard 835,916 

Steam, etc., process and apparatus for gen- 
erating, R. M. Hunter 835,531 

Steam producer, I. H. Boyer 835,597 

Still and condenser, continuous, R. W. Er- 

win 836,022 

Stirrup, 6. H. Zimmerman 836,000 

Stopper. See Bottle stopper. 

Storing apparatus, material, W. J. Selleck 835,563 

Stove, J. M. Mitchell 836,046 

Stove attachment, gas, W. S. Ward 835,693 

Strainer cleaning device, D. H. Staples 836,056 

Strips of material, press for feeding and 

cutting up, F. Ecaubert 836,020 

Structural shape, J. R. Tanner 835.578 

Stump puller, J. H. Caldwell 835,934 

Sulfur burner, agitating, J. C. Wise 835,926 

Surveyors' instruments, plumb device for, 

Olsen & Torgersen 835,7 11 

Suspending hook, portable, W. R. Johnson 836,041 

Swaging machine, J. A. Horton 835,729 

Swimming mitt, W. O. Wells 835,588 

Swing, C J. Weiland 835,924 

Switch operating and locking mechanism, 

L. E. L. Themke 835,989 

Syringe, S. H. Chubb 835,849 

Syringe, vagina], W. H. Brandon 835,496 

Tag, T. G. Portmore 835,687 

Telegraph instrument, D. O. Stinson 835,647 

Telegraph repeater, P. E. Bliss 835,772 

Telegraphic systems, automatic transmitter 

for, J. Gell 835,750,835,751 

Telephone exchange for double wire tele- 
phone systems, automatic, G. A. Betu- 

lander 835,878 

Telephone exchange system, H. G. Webster 835,802 
Telephone exchanges, central energy sys- 
tem for, J. G. Roberts 835,868 

Telephone set, head, J. Pieringer 835,865 

Telephone systems, selective signal for, M. 

H. Degnail 835,704 

Telephone wire securing means, II. W 

Ragsdale 835,801 

Thill coupling, J. D. Barry 836,060 

Threshing machine cylinder tooth, J. R 

_„ Ha H .' 836,030 

Tile, Are brick, J. V. Boland 835,596 

Tiles, slabs, and the like of plastic ma- 
terial, apparatus for molding, A. Gas- 

Pary 835,858 

Tipple, Stouffer & Tidrick 835 574 

Tire, H. T. Bragg 835,808 

Tire envelope,- automobile, C W. A. Cor- 

„ nisn ' 835,502 

Tire, wheel, J. Cooper 835,939 

Tobacco sacks, stopper attachment for, W. 

L - Fross 835,787 

Tool, combination, R. Bartholomaus 835,698 

Tool, combination, L. S. Loudon : 836,075 

Tool operating and holding device, W. H. 

Donnelly . ._. 835,727 

Tool, pneumatic, W. Wheeler 835.589 

Toy, P. McMahon 835,550 

Toy, L. H. Pfleghardt 836,050 

Trace fastener, L. L. Lent 835,962 

Track anchor, G. H. Miller.... 835,910 

Transporting system, J. Whiteford 835,590 

Trap door, skylight and roof ventilator, F. 

Lyster 835,966 

Trees, balling device for transplanting, II. 

UfEmann 835,585 

Trolley for electric railways, E. F. Landis. 835,731 
Trolley harps, contact spring for, J. Hens- 

loiy ••• 835,728 

Trolley pole clamp, Fellows & Cammett... 835,821 
Trolley signals, circuit closer for, A. Bevan 836,062 
Trolley tracks, switch block for, R. John- 
ston 836,043 

Tucking blades, ribbon guide for, Townsepd 

& Bolles 835,991 

Tumbler washer, rotary, F. W. Will 835,925 

Turbine, elastic fluid, J. H. O. Bunge 835,748 

Turnbuckle, J. O. C. Briggs 836,063 

Turned articles, apparatus for making, C. 

IIM 835,525 

Twisting and spinning fibrous materials, 

machine for, D. C. Sweet 835,577 

Type, H. C. Gammeter 836,026 

Type and type holder, W. Laycock 835,795 

Typewriter pointer, G. J. Barrett 835,494 

Typewriter ribbon threader, N. L. Anderson 835,722 

Typewriting machine, J. Felbel 835,509 

Typewriting machine, R. H. Strother 835,575 

Typewriting machine carriage, H. Hill 835,823 

Valve, G. E. Franquist 835,854 

Valve for blowing engines, J. V. M. Patitz. 835,712 
Valve for gas and similar engines, F. C. 

Olin 835,634 

Valve for radiators, air, T. Wheatley 835,720 

Valve for regenerative furnaces, G. W. 

Vanderslice 835,923 

Valve operating mechanism for steam en- 
gines, H. Lentz 835,963 

\alve, primary pneumatic, G. P. Brand... 835.775 

Valve seat, pneumatic, G. P. Brand 835,778 

Valve, stop, E. Hill, Jr 835,523 

Valve, throttle, C. C. Fawcett 836,023 

Vaporizer or carbureter, C. D. Shain...... 835,564 

Vault light construction, E. M. Johnson.... 835,534 

Vehicle canopy, J. R. Ryan 835,869 

Vehicle wheel, J. M. Kerwin et al 835,793 

Vehicles, etc., friction gearing for motor, 

L. Maurer 835,797 

Vending machine, coin controlled, M. E. 

Shaw 835,838 

Veterinary instrument, G. W. Read 835,688 

Wagon, H. J. Ferris 835,785 

Wagon box fastener, E. C. Tuttle 835,691 

Wagons and the like, loading apparatus 

for, L. Kniffen 835,624 

Walls and other articles, textile covering 

for, P. Richter 835,765 

Wardrobe, R. Burford 835.701 

Wardrobe, knockdown, M. Damato 835,902 

Washer. See Tumbler washer. 

Washing machine, N. Allgier 835,591 

Washing machine, R. C. Smith 835,644 

Washing machine, Elwell & Martin 835,943 

Washing machine, R. E. Leavens 835,959 

Washing machine, J. F. Nelson 835,975 

Watch stand, M. Roller 835,762 

Water heating apparatus, J. A. Hosp 835,947 

Water indicator, C. Steinhauser 835,920 

Water, making potable and aerated, R. T. 

Gunn 835,886 

Weather strip, C. W. Wright 835,654 

Welding and shaping chain links, machine 

for, I. . D. Weaver 835,842 

Wheel box, I. A. Weaver 835,768 



November 24, 1906. 



Scientific American 



393 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising i 11 this column is 50 cents a line. No less 
than four nor more than ten lines accepted. Count 
seven words to the line. All orders must be accom- 
panied by a remittance. Further information sent on 
request. 



SALE AND EXCHANGE. 

MANGANESE OaE LANDS for Sale or Lease on 
Royalty in Central India, containing large quantities 
first-class manganese ore. Address for full particulars, 
"India," c./o. Street's, 30 Com hill, London, England. 

FOB SALE.— Engine Lathe, swings 9J* in. takes 25 in. 
between centers; complete with full set change gears 
to cut all size threads, 3 to 40 in. ; price only $41.00. Ad- 
dress L. F. Grammes & Sons, Allentown, Pa. 

HOW TO SELL STOCK-IF YOU WANT CAPITAL 

send stamp for my booklet, "Howto Sell Stock;" tells 
how capital is secured, how to reach investors by mail, 
by advertising, by personal solicitation; how to get 
investors' names, bow to write prospectus. Cash A. 
Harris, 6076, 1 Madison Avenue, New York. 

FOR SALE— United States and Canadian patents. 
The world's best surf-actuated motor. The only Motor 
with sufficient regularity for dynamo operation. 
Address Tad Danford, Granby, Colo. 



BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES. 

WATEB STILL.— Fits any Tea Kettle. Guaranteed 
one to two quarts per hour. Without kettle $2 00. 
Express prepaid in United States $2 50. Adams Co., 396 
West Polk Street, Chicago. 

STEEL WHEELS to fit any wagon or cart. Made 
any size, any width of tire. Also handy wagons with 
low wheels and wide tires. Wood wagons with steel 
wheels, or steel wagons with steel wheels. Log wagons 
and heavy traction wagons of all kinds, for horses or 
traction engine power. Steel axles of any Size and 
shape. Address Electric Wheel Company, Walton 
Square. Quincy, 111., U, S. A. 

LET ME FIGUBE ON STAMPINGS for sheet 
metal work. I also want to buy patents on small 
specialties, something that I can manufacture in 
conjunction with Williams' Ventilating Window- 
Sash Fasteners. Write me description to-day. 
Address Charles Hoyt Williams, 1046 Fidelity Build- 
ing. Buffalo, N. Y. 

UNUSUALLY GOOD SALABIES and a strong 
demand for men in the photo-engraving business. 
The wonderful increase in the use of illustrations 
in all newspapers and magazines creates an un- 
filled call for men to turn out cuts. Twenty-five 
Dollars to Fifty Dollars a week is easily made. 
¥ ou can learn this paying trade in New York 
day or evening. Address United States School 
of Photo-Engraving, 466 Pearl Street, corner Park 
Bow, New York. 

WANTED.— Superintendent to take charge of small 
plant for manufacturing mechanical specialties and 
machinery. Must have practical experience in modern 
shop methods. Writegiving full experience and salary 
required. Superintendent, Box 773, New York. 

WE MANUFACTURE METAL SPECIALTIES of 
all kinds. Best equipment, Send sketch or model for 
estimate, stating quantity. Hayes Manufacturing Co., 
465-75 Maybury Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

TO THOSE HABD OF HEABING-An efficient aid 
sent for trial, no expense, no risk, no contract, no 
money unless device he kept. For full particulars 
address A, O. Tiemann & Company, 107 Park Row, 
New York. 

LEARN TO INVENT and develop your ideas for 
profit; we are not patent, lawyers. Boston School of 
Inventing, P. O. Box 3566, Boston, Mass. Particulars 
free. 

TYPEWRITERS. -All makes, all prices. Twelve 
stores in principal cities. Catalogue and address of 
nearest store sent on request. The Typewriter Ex- 
change Company, Dept. A, 343 Broadway, New York. 

OFFERS are invited for purchase of four United 
States Patents covering Incandescent Gasoline Lamps. 
The Lamp is a great success in Britain as manufactured 
by Petrolite, Ltd., 106 York Boad, Lambeth, London. 
The Lamp is safe (liquid being contained in absorbent 
block) clean and economical, with brilliant light. No 
smoke, no smell, no cleaning. Inquiries to Guthrie & 
Cairns, 4a St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

AMAZING SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY ! Science 
finds fountain of youth. Send for prospectus of fact, 
insuring tremendous profits for investment in stock of 
the Backelet Gen'l Magnet Co., manufacturers of the 
Bacbelet Magnetic Wave Generators. Convenient for 
use inevery house and office. Full particulars. Address 
H. C. Walker, 11th Floor, Flatlron Bldg., New York. 
Write for exclusive territorial rights. 

AFTER three years of labor and experimenting we 
succeeded In completing a great money-making electric 
invention; public necessity; possible demand for mil- 
lions; patent Issued, others pending; wish to meet capi- 
talist to place on market ; perfect working models on 
exhibition. Stein Broa, Electrical Engineers. 237 East 
18th Street, N- Y. 

WANTED to buy a pair of very heavy Alligator 
Shears second-hand. If you have anything to offer 
please quote price, state weight of the Shears and capa- 
city. South Send Chilled Plow Co., South Bend, tnd. 

AUTO CAR PRACTICE.-" Homans' Self - Propelled 
Vehicles." 1907 edition just issued, right up to date, is 
the most complete book on the motor car; practical, 
fully illustrated, 600 pages, handsomely bound. Price 
$2.00 post paid, money back If not satisfied. Agents 
wanted. Specimen pages free upon request. For full 
particulars and information address Theo. Audel & Co., 
63 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

WANTED, BOOKS.— The Scranton International Li- 
brary of Technology, Vols. 1-to 81. Must be latest edi- 
tion and ingnodi condition. Address, stating lowest price 
for cash, The Librarian, State Agricultural College, 
Agricultural College P. O., Michigan. 

AUTOMOBILE EXPERTS are in constant demand 
at high salaries. Our six weeks' course is the most 
thorough and practical, fitting men to drive, handle and 
repair. Day and evening classes. Special course for 
owners. New York School of Automobile Engineers, 
146 West 56th Street, New York. 



HELP WANTED. 

NO BETTEB WAY for the technical specialist to 
learn of opportunities in his line than through us. 
Write us to-day, stating experience. Hapyoods, 305 
Broadway, New York. 

SUPERINTENDENT for electrical plant $2500, Drafts- 
man $1000, Manager $1500, Bookkeeper $1200, Salesman 
$1800. Other positions on file. Write for list and plan. 
Business Opportunity Company, 1 Union Square, N. Y. 

WANTED.— Competent Draughtsman and Designer 
with experience in handling men, for position with ma- 
chine shop. Salary $1,500 to $1,800 per year depending: 
on experience, Apply to Draughtsman, Box 773, N. \- 

ENGINEER WANTED.— A college-bred engineer with 
practical experience and a capital of $2000 to take active 
interest in and charge of an Engineering School to oe 
affiliated with a well established S3hool in the West. 
For full information and particulars, write to Dr. Diet- 
rich, 730Grand Ave,, Milwaukee, Wis, 



PATENTS FOR SALE. 

FOR SALE.— Valuable patent in plumbing line. Will 
sell all or part interest. Stand thorough investigation. 
Large profits can be made. Address Patent, 917 
Seventh Avenue, New York. 

FOR SALE.-LT. S. Patent No. 811,322 granted Jan.. 
1906, on Collapsible Canopy for launches. Excellent 
opportunity for party with manufacturing appliances. 
Address John Poltock, East Rutherford. N.J. 

PATENTS SOLD ON COMMISSION. -If you wish 
to buy or sell a patent write for particulars to E. L. 
Perkins, 72 Broad Street, Boston. Patent Sales Exclu- 
sively. 

PARTNERS WANTED. 

WANTED,— Partner with money to manufacture and 
place upon market Razor Stropping any one can use- 
does quick work— bears good profit. Forfull particulars 
address H. P. Fowler Pelham, S. C, 



EXPERIMENTAL W6RK. 

JOHN F. P1TZ, INC., 89 FRANKFORT ST., makers 
of patterns and models. Every facility for aiding in- 
ventors to perfect tneir ideas. Large and small contracts 
executed promptly. Machine patterns a specialty. 

A GOOD model is necessary to show satisfactory 
results of an invention, only first class experimental 
and construction work. Instruments of every descrip- 
tion, expertadvice. Geo, Kirkegaard, bU Pearl St., N.Y. 



MACHINERY FOR SALE. 

IF interested in power for any kind of light manufac- 
turing, electric litrMmg. marine or other purposes, set 
information on the most improved kerosene oil engine 
by sending for catalogue to Remington Oil Engine Co., 
41 Park Row. 



GAS-LIGHTING APPLIANCES. 

THE "PNEU-WAY *' of lighting gas! Lights Wels- 
bachs without electricity from button on wall ! Easily 
installed, ever lasting. Ask your gas company or write 
Pneumatic Gas Lighting Company, 150 Nassau St., N. Y. 
Valuable Christmas surprise. 



STEAM BOILERS. 

THE RECORD of the Hogan Water Tube Boiler 
proves it the safest, most reliable and efficient steam 
generator known. Built only by James Dean, Bidge- 
field Park, N. J. Information for tlie asking. 



Whiffletree, C. Harrell 835,904 

Whist, chart for keeping records of bridge, 

J. E. Russell 835,833 

Wind motor, J. J. Donnelly 835,667 

Wind shelter, K. von Helmolt 835,906 

Winding machine, yarn, J. K. Altemus 835,490 

Winding mechanism, spring, O. Ohlson 835,710 

Window fastener, J. A. Bock 835,931 

Window, metallic, W. J. Burton 835,598 

Wire stretcher, J. H. Lee 835,961 

Wrench, B. Tindall 835,990 

Yarn nipper, C. H. L. Kahler 835,536 

DESIGNS. 

Card, playing, E. W. Beers 38,310 

Garters, hose hook for, E. A. Herr 38,312 

Lamp shade, E. D. Terry 38,311 



TRADE MARKS. 

Abrasive material, paper and cloth coated 
with, H. Behr & Co 

Ale, lager beer, and porter, A. G. Van 
Nostrand 

Ales, porter, half-and-half, and brown stout, 
Christian Feigenspan 

Antiseptic, germicide, and disinfectant, Fred- 
erick C. Adams 

Arch supporters, A. E. Little & Co 

Bactericides, Griserin-Werke Paul Camphau- 
sen G. m. b. H 

Baking powder, S. Scheuer & Co 

Baking powder, bicarbonate of soda, cream 
of tartar, and yeast powder, E. R. Dur- 
kee & Co 

Bath tubs, enamel metallic, Louis Lipp Co. . 

Bath tubs, washstands, sinks, etc., enam- 
eled iron, Wheeling Enameled Iron Co. 

Beef, tongue, and lard, roast, Swarzschild & 
Sulzberger Co 

Beer, Pabst Brewing Co 

Beer, Anheuser-Bush Brewing Association. . 

Beer, Monumental Brewing Co. of Baltimore 
City 

Beer, Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association.. 

Beer, ale, and brown stout, C. F. Lauber.. 

Beer, ale, and porter, lager, Du Bois Brew- 
ing Co 57,328, 

Beer, lager and bottled, Terre Haute Brew- 
ing Co 57,345, 

Belting, hose, and machinery packings, Re- 
vere Rubber Co.. 57,359, 57,371, 57,388, 
57,402, 57,403, 57,432, 

Beverages juices, syrups, and extracts, cer- 
tain named, Chesterman Co 

Blind adjusters, New York Blind and Tran- 
som Adjuster Co 

Blue, laundry, J. C. Kellogg 

Boiler cleansing compounds, J. Williams, Jr. 

Boots, and particularly waterproof boots, 
men's leather, Henry B. Reed Co 

Boots and shoes, leather, Alter & McCaffrey 
Co 

Boots and shoes, leather, Gore Lace Shoe Co. 

Boots and shoes, leather, Geo. H. West Shoe 
Co 

Boots and shoes, leather, Churchill and Al- 
den Co 

Boots and shoes, men's and boys' leather, 
Dunham Brothers 

Boots, shoes, and slippers and leather used 
in their manufacture, leather, Packard 
& Field 

Braids, chip and straw, Parsons Brothers 

57,386, 

Brick and terra cotta, McKeesport Brick Co. 

Bricks or slabs, Scaglioline Brick and Fire- 
proofing Co 

Building and roofing material, waterproof and 
weatherproof, Paraffine Paint Co 

Butter, Ammon & Person 

Candy, Lipps-Murbach Co. of Baltimore City 

Candy, hard and soft, Quaker City Choco- 
late and Confectionery Co 57,604, 

Canned, bottled, and packaged fruits and 
vegetables, Zarnits Brothers Grocery Co. 

Canned fish and oysters, Oklahoma Whole- 
sale Grocer Co 

Canned fruits and vegetables, E. T. Smith 
Co 

Canoes, Old Town Canoe Co 

Champagne, Blondeau, Berque & Co 

Chemical composition, certain, H. E. Per- 
cival 

Chemical finishing compound, R. Bernheim.. 

China, stoneware, earthenware, etc.. Ville- 
roy & Boch 

Chisels, cold chisels, and gouges, Hibbard, 
Spencer, Bar.tlett & Co 

Chocolate, Soc. An. Des Fabriques Bernoises 
& Zuricoises De Chocolat Lindt & De 
Chocolat Sprungli 

Chucks, E. Horton & Son Co 

Cigars, Cuesta, Rey & Co 

Cigars, cheroots, and cigarettes made of ci- 
gar-tobacco, Cayey-Caguas Tobacco Co.. 

57.494, 

Cleaning and polishing material, Matchless 
Metal Polish Co 

Cleaning preparations, C. J. Leedy 

Coal tar preparations, certain, National Coal 
Tar Co 

Coffee, N. L. Burchell 

Coffee and tea, Humphrey Coffee & Tea Co. 

Coffee, roasted, Louisiana Molasses Co 

Colors, powder to fix fresco and lime, Les 
Produits Chimiques de Croissy 

Compounds for treatment of catarrhal dis- 
eases, I. B. Pierce 

Corsets, Corset H Co 57,408, 

Cotton ginning machinery, Continental Gin 
Co 

Crackers, Hygienic Health Food Co 

Crackers" and biscuits, C. D. Boss & Son .... 

Decalcomania transfer sheets, ornamental, 
Ceramic Transfer Co 57,496, 

Desks, tables, and cabinets, Krag Imperial 
Cabinet Co 

Explosives, high, Eastern Dynamite Co. 
57,352, 57,363, 57,364. 57,397, 57,398, 
57,422, 57,423, 57,443, 

Eyeglasses, W. H. Spangler 

fbeders, automatic boiler, Gravity Controller 
Co 

Fertilizers, Coweta Fertilizer Co 57,293. 

Fertilizers, Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co. 
57,298 to 57,307, 57,310, 57,315 to 57,319, 
57,373,57,484. 



57,289 

57,572 

57,327 

57,554 
57,463 

57,505 
57,543 



57,530 
57,464 

57,393 

57,610 
57,334 
57,491 

57,514 
57,555 
57,513 

57,342 

57,346 

57,389 
57,473 

57,416 

57,468 
57,511 
57,573 

57,387 

57,347 
57,365 

57,452 

57,583 

57,351 



57,431 



57,469 
57,'414 



57,533 
57,574 
57,597 

57,605 

57,619 

57,602 

57,586 
57,385 
57,325 

57,517 
57,493 

57,552 

57,411 



57,613 
57,409 
57,584 



57,495 

57,565 
57,427 

57,515 
57,579 
57,594 
57,599 

57,331 

57,568 
57,442 

57,377 
57,595 
57,577 

57,557 

57,462 

57,421 
57,444 
57,479 

57,483 
57,294 

57,338 





POINT 



VIEW 





1907 



1907 



is easily the peer of any car built in America. We have actually accom- 
plished in Type XV, shown in the above picture, what no other domestic 
manufacturer has even attempted— Chrome Nickel Steel Construction and 
genuine Deutsche Waffen Fabrik Bearings throughout. We have retained 
the matchless features which have gained for the Pope-Toledo, in the past, 
most of the important records for speed, hill climbing and endurance, and 
added the best continental practice, including four-speed selective type trans- 
emission ; multiple metal disc clutch running in oil; mechanical valves; 
noiseless chains; 36-inch wheels, chrome nickel steel I-beam solid axles; 
many minor improvements, and design and finish that is new, distinctive and 
distinguished. Price $4,250. Send for complete advance literature. 

POPE MOTOR CAR CO., TOLEDO. OHIO 




NEW YORK; 
1733 Broadway 



Members A. L. A. 

BOSTON : 
223 Columbus Ave. 



M. 



WASHINGTON: 
819 14th St., N.W. 




The/Sew Models of t fie 

Remington 
Ty p e w r i t e r 



■*v? / 



^M 



please the man who 
receives the letters 
— because the work 
is the best he has 
ever seen. 

They satisfy the 
man who signs the 
letters — because the 
work is the best and 
the swiftest he has 
ever known. 

They gratify the 
operator who writes 
the letters — because 
the work is the best, 
the swift est and the 
easiest she has ever 
done. 



The NewRgmmftm Escapement accounts for it all nave YOU seen it? 

Remington Typewriter Company 

NewYot k and Everywhere 



394 



Scientific American 



November 24, 1906. 



Seventh National 

AUTOMOBILE SHOW 

January 12 to 19, 1907 



AS USUAL AT 



MADISON SQUARE GARDEN 



UNDER. THE DIRECTION OF THE 



ASSOCIATION OF LICENSED AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURERS 



The Following Leading Makes of American and Foreign Cars are Sold by Licensees Under the Selden Patent and will be Exhibited 



APPERSON 

AUTO CAR 

BUICK 

CADILLAC 

C. G. V. 

CORBIN 

CLEMENT-BAYARD 

COLUMBIA 

DARRACQ 

DE DIETRICH 

DECAUVILLE 



ELMORE 

ENGLISH DAIMLER 

FIAT 

FRANKLIN 

HAYNES 

HEWITT 

HOTCHKISS 

ISOTTA-FRASCHINI 

KNOX 

LOCOMOBILE 

LOZIER 



MATHESON 

NORTHERN 

OLDSMOBILE 

PACKARD 

PANHARD 

PEERLESS 

PIERCE GREAT ARROW 

POPE-HARTFORD 

POPE-TOLEDO 

POPE-TRIBUNE 

RENAULT 



ROCHET-SCHNEIDER 

ROYAL-TOURIST 

S. & M. SIMPLEX 

STEARNS 

STEVENS-DURYEA 

STUDEBAKER 

THOMAS 

WALTER 

WALTHAM-ORIENT 

WINTON 



Also Complete Exhibits by The Importers Automobile Salon, Incorporated, and The Motor and Accessories Manufacturers, Incorporated 



Files and rasps, Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & 

Co 57,455 

Piles and saws, F. W. Gesswein Co 57,451 

Filters, Burt Manufacturing Co 57,394 

Flannel cloth, C. Smith 57,477 

Flavoring extracts, Dr. Chase Chemical Co. 57,582 

Flour, wheat, Barber Milling Co 57,576 

Flour, wheat, Bulsing & Heslenfeld. 57,578 

Flour, wheat, John F. Meyer & Sons Mill- 
ing Co. . . . 57,596 

Flour, wheat, Longmont Farmers Milling & 

Elevator Co 57,598 

Flour, wheat, Semler Milling Co 57,611 

Flour, wheat, W. J. Jennison Co •••••■ 57,615 

Fly paper and sticky preparation, sticky, O. 

& W. Tbum Co 57,566 

Fly paper, sticky, O. & W. Thum Co.. 57,537, 57,567 
Foods, certain named cereal, American Cereal 

Co 57,620 

Games of chance, J. Becker 57,288 

(Jin, sloe, J. Hawker & Co 57,261 

Governors, engine, Pickering Governor Co. 57,470 
Gum, chewing, Royal Remedy & Extract Co. 57,607 
Harmonicas and accordions, mouth, Firm of 

M. Hohner 57,508 

Harmonicas, mouth, Firm of M. Hohner 

57,457, 57,507 

Heel counters, Morton & Son 57,383 

Jewelry and silver plated precious metal 
ware, certain named, Hamilton & Ham- 
ilton, Jr 57,454 

Kersey and cassimere, W. J. Dickey & Sons 57,308 
Knit drawers, Indianapolis Knitting Mills. . 57,381 
Knit hosiery, Chicago-Kenosha Hosiery Co. 57,375 
Knitted underwear, William Carter Co. 57, 489, 57,523 
Knives, forks, and spoons, plated, Interna- 
tional Silver Co 57,458 

Knives, scissors, and razors, J. W. Biggins 57,439 

Lamp chimneys, Geo. A. Young Co 57,504 

Lamps and stoves, petroleum, Aktiebolaget 

Lux 57,405 

Lard and certain named meats, Schwarz- 

schild & Sulzberger Co 57,608, 57,609 

Lard, leaf, Parker, Webb & Co 57,603 

Lead and linseed oil, oxids of, National 

Lead Co 57,466 

Leather polish and dressing, S. Graziano & 

Co 57,591 

Liniment or ointment, T. P. Baldwin 57,527 

Lubricants and lubricant stocks, cylinder, 

Fred G. Clark -Co 57,503 

Magazine, semi-monthly, Review Publishing 

Co 57,606 

Magazines or periodicals, G. W. Wilson, 

57,524, 57,553 
Malt and hops, extract of, Pabst Brewing Co. 57,335 
Matches, safety, Jonkopings och Vulcans 

Tandsticksfabriksaktiebolag 57,330 

Mattresses or bottoms, spring, Kansas City 

Spring Bed Co 57,562 

Medicine, certain named, R. V. Pierce. . . . 57,518 
Medicine for the prevention of gonorrhea, 

Preventol Chemical Co 57,520 

Metal sawing machines and saws therefor, 

Higley Machine Co 57,425 

Metal tubes, Stewarts and Lloyds 57,480 

Mince meat, Whipple Co-operative Co 57,618 

Motor and dynamo brushes, Morgan Crucible 

Co 57,382 

Music playing instruments and music rolls 
therefor, automatic, Wilcox & White 

Co 57,522 

Musical instrument strings, Lyon & Healy 57,370 
Needles, crochet hooks, knitting needles, and 

bodkins, John James & Sons 57,412 

Newspaper, W. R. Hearst 57,354, 57,355 

Newspaper, daily, Morning Journal Associa- 
tion 57,356 

Newspaper, daily, New England Newspaper 

Publishing Co. 57,357 

Newspaper, daily, New York Evening Jour- 
nal Publishing Co 57,358 

Newspaper, daily, Star Co 57,360 

Newspaper, daily, Illinois Printing & Pub- 
lishing Co 57,368 

Newspaper, daily, Star Co 57, Q 7.2 

Newspaper, weekly, W. R. Hearst 57,8oo 

Oysters and shrimp, Aughinbaugh Canning 

Co. 57,575 

Oysters, Fresh and canned, Torsch Packing 

Co 57,614 



Many Merchants 

have our goods in stock, but 
you may not readily find them. 
Send order to us, then you will 
receivetbe genuine"Goodform" 
equipments through the local 
merchant or from us by prepaid 
express. Sold singly or in sets. 



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"Goodform" Set for Men 

$4.50, delivered. 
6Coat Hangers, No. 21, adjustable. 
6 Trousers Hangers, No. 41, cloth 

lined. 
1 each Shelf Bar and Door I^oop. 
1 Shoe Rail, No. 27. 



"Goodform" Set for Ladies 

$3.00, delivered. 
6 Coat Hangers, No. 21, adjusta- 
ble. 
6 Skirt Hangers, adjustable. 
1 each Shelf Bar and Door I^oop. 
1 Shoe Rail, No. 27. 



'I Knew He Would Like It." 



All nickel plated. In attractive enameled boxes, especially right for 
Christmas. Remember we deliver for the price. 



Accept no substitutes. Get the genuine. Every article in the "Goodform" 
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back and money will be refunded. For years "Goodform 1 * Sets have been a 
favorite with gift buyers. Our experience and perfect equipment enable us to 
handle the holiday trade promptly. Your order will have quick and careful 
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744 Garden City Block 
U.S.A. 



Chicago Form Company, it^oo 




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PATENT PENDING 



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also send you free of charge our Watchmakers' Tool and Material Catalogue with Illustrated Instruction Book. WRITE TO-DAY. 
ROGERS, THUKMAN & CO., Jeweler's Wholesale Supply House, 34 to 44 Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111., F. S. A. 



New Catalogue of Scientific and Technical Books 

A new 112-page Catalogue is now ready for distribution. It is entirely 
new and lists 5,000 of the latest and best books of a scientific and 
technical nature. Copies are being mailed to all subscribers to our 
periodicals, but those who purchase our publications at news stands, 
or read them in libraries, should send at once for a copy of our 
Catalogue, which will be mailed free to any address in the world. 

MUNN & COMPANY, Publishers, 36i Broadway, New York City 



Paint, enamel, Pinchin Johnson & Co 57,344 

Paints and varnishes, certain, Chilton Paint 

Co 57,326 

Paints, cold water, Columbia Refining Co. . . 57,341 
Paints, varnishes, and enamels, oil, Muralo 

Co 57,332 

Pajamas, J. L. Clark 57,292 

Paper, commercial and record, F. A. Flinn 57,353 

Paper, writing, Southworth Co 57,545, 57,570 

Paper, writing and printing, George La Monte 

Son 57,559 

Papers, transfer, Paas Dye Co 57,516 

Paste in powder form, Clark Paper & Manu- 
facturing Co 57,497 

Photographic film, Eastman Kodak Co. , 

57,378, 57,445, 57,446 to 57,449, 57,499 
57,500 to 57,502, 57,531 to 57,534 

Piano players, Autotone Co • • 57,349 

Piano players and combination pianos and pi- 
ano players, Auto-Grand Piano Co 57,348 

Piano players and perforated records therefor, 

automatic, Simplex Piano Player Co. . . . 57,390 
Piano players and player pianos, Horace 

Waters & Co 57,392 

Pianos, Horace Waters & Co 57,367 

Pianos having playing attachments, Auto- 
Grand Piano Co 57,362 

Pills, pellets, or granules, R. V. Pierce. . . . 57,519 

Plaster of paris, J. B. King & Co 57,535 

Plaster, plaster of paris, calcined plaster, 
and stucco, wall, Acme Cement Plaster 

Co 57,374 

Plasters, porous, Allcock Manufacturing Co. 57,525 
Plated flat ware for table use, including 
knives, forks, and spoons, International 

Silver Co 57,509, 57,5(50 

Popcorn, sweetened or molasses, D. L. Clark 

Co 57,585 

Powder, explosive, E. I. du Pont Co 57.395 

Powder, explosive, Laflin & Rand Powder Co. 57,426 

Powder, gun, E. I. du Pont Co 57,396, 57,419 

Powder, including smokeless powder, ex- 
plosive, E. I. du Pont Co 57,420 

Powder, including smokeless powder, gun, 

E. I. du Pont Co 57,418 

Pumps and turbines, Vagn-och Maskin-Fab- 

riks-Aktiebolaget 57,483 

Pumps, steam, Union Steam Pump Co ... . 57,482 

Punch, John E. Cassidy & Son 57,;"61 

Radiators, R. S. Calef 57,441 

Razors, Moshy & Rahaim 57,429 

Razors, Wm. Elliot & Co 57,433, 57,490 

Remedies for certain named diseases, Tilden 

Co 57,549 

Remedies for the treatment of gouty dia- 
thesis, cystitis, and pyelitis, Tilden Co. 57,548 
Remedies for the treatment of stomach and 

bowel troubles, Tilden Co 57,571 

Remedies for uterine disorders, Schlotterbeck 

& Foss Co 57,544 

Remedies, throat and lung, D. Ransom, Son 

and Co 57,529 

Remedy for anemia, C. Manas y Britapaja 

Vda de Reveron 57,564 

Remedy for catarrh, R. V. Pierce 57,539 

Remedy for certain named diseases, Janes 

Medicine Co 57,510 

Remedy for nasal, throat, and lung diseases, 

T. N. Kenyon 57,512 

Ribbons, Smith & Kaufmann 57,297,57,313 

Rings, finger, Ostby and Barton Co 57,296 

Roofing, sheet metal, Protected Metal Co. 

57,415, 57,472 
Rope, cord, lines, and twine, American Manu- 
facturing Co 57,434 

Rubber goods, certain named, Goodyear Tire 

and Rubber Co 57,590 

Salmon, shrimp, lobsters, and clams, E. T. 

Smith Co 57,587 

Saws and saw blades, Hibbard, Spencer, Bart- 
lett & Co 57,456 

Seed, bird, Griggs, Cooper & Co 57,593 

Shears and butchers' knives, sheep and gar- 
den, Burgon & Ball 57,440,57,528 

Shears, sickles, scythes, and knives, Burgon 

& Ball 57,407 

Shoes, leather, Upham Bros. Co 57,361 

Shoes, leather, Smith-Briscoe Shoe Co 57,404 

Shoes, leather, M. Marchand and Sons 57,465 



November 24, 1906. 



Scientific American 



395 




The razor tbaft will split a hairisthestropped 
razor, for no razor, no matter what kind, can 
hold a hair-splitting edge without being occa- 
sionally stropped. The barber will tell you 
that a good strop is as necessary as the razor 
for a smooth, eaay shave. A Torrey Strop 
will enable the most inexperienced to quickly 
edge up a razor. 

Torrey Strops 

are made in all styles. Popular prices— 50c, 
75c, $1.00, $1.50, $2.00 and $2.50. Sent postpaid 
if your dealer cannot supply. Money refunded 
or new Btrop if not satisfactory. 

Torrey 's Oil-Edge Dressing will keep any 
strop soft and pliable. Price 15c at dealers, or 
mailed on receipt of price. Catalogue of 
Torrey Strops, containing valuableinformation 
for those who shave, sent free. 

J. R. TORREY S CO., P.O. Box 34 .Worcester, Mass. 



Tours 



Personally Conducted — Ex- 
clusively First-Class — to Cali- 
fornia — January 10th, February 
7th and March 2nd under the 
auspices of the tourist depart- 
ment, Chicago, Union Pacific 
and North-Western Line; 

Include all expenses 

— hotels, railway fare, sleeping 
car and dining car accommoda- 
tions of the finest character, 
and numerous side trips. So 
arranged as to spend the dis- 
agreeable portions of the win- 
ter months in comfort and ease. 

Write for itineraries and full 
particulars to S. A. Hutchinson, 
Manager, 212 Clark Street, Chi- 
cago, 111. 



BABBITT METALS.— SIX IMPORTANT 

formulas. Scientific American Supplement 1 l*i3* 
Price 10 cents. For sale by Munu & Co. and all news- 
dealers. Send for catalogue. 



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Have you that clearness of mind so essential to suc- 
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YOUR PATENT 

Carefully Developed Hay Be a Succe'ss ! 

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and Manufacturers. 115 Court Street, Hoboken, N. J. 
Twominutes from D. L. & W. Depot. 



60 YEARS' 

EXPERIENCE 




Trade Marks 
Designs 
Copyrights &c. 

Anyone sending a sketch and description way 
emickly ascertain our opinion free whether an 
invention is probably patentable. Communica- 
tions strictly confidential. HANDBOOK on Patents 
sent free. Oldest agency for securing patents. 

Patents taken through Munn & Co. receive 
special notice, without c harg e, in the 

Scientific American. 

A handsomely illustrated weekly. Largest cir- 
eolation of any scientific journal l'erms, $3 a 
year ; four months, $1. Sold by all newsdealers. 

PHUNN & Co. 36,Broadway - New York 

Branch Office. 635 F St. Washington. D. C. 



Shoes, leather, Menzies Shoe Co 57,600 

Silver plated hollow wart', International Sil- 
ver Co 57,329 

Soap, Lever Brothers Co 57,300,57,309 

Soap, Pitts Sanitary Co 57,400, 57,401 

Soap. Lever Brothers Co 57,530 

Soap, harness, Duranoid Mfg. Co.......* 57,205 

Soap, laundry anil powdered, C. W. Young 

& Co ,. 57,309 

Soaps, Lambert Pharmacal Co 57,503 

Spectacles and eyeglass parts, C. A. Wilkin- 
son & Co 57,488 

Spirits, Woollier & Co 57,287 

Steel, Walter Spencer & Co 57,391 

Steel, Crucible Steel Company of America 57,517 
Steel, Sanderson Brothers & Newbould . . . . 57,475 

Steel, Walter Spencer & Co 57,480 

Steel, Hobson, Houghton & Co '57,500 

Steel, Seebohm & Dieckstahl 57,012 

Steol and iron, Walter Spencer & Co 57,617 

Steel, except sheet steel, unwrought and 

partly wrought. Edgar Allen & Co.... 57,450 

Steel, tool, S-lrtli-Sterlliif? Steel Co 57,410 

Steel, tool, J. J. Saville & Co 57,459 

Steel, unwrought and partly wrought, Edgar 

Allen & Co 57,379,57.380,57,424 

J Steel, unwrought and partly wrought, Jonas 

& Colver 57,400, 57,401 

Steel unwrought and partly wrought, \V. K. 

& C. Peace 57,485 

Steel, ' unwrought and partly wrought, and 

wire made of steel, Marsh Brothers Co. 57,428 
Stoves and burners, gas ranges, and ovens, 

vapor, American Stove Co 57,435 

Stoves, heaters, and lamps and burners there- 
for, oil, Plume & Atwood Mfg. Co 57,540 

Stoves, heaters, burners, • and blow lamps, 

G. Barthel 57,438 

Stoves, ranges, and furnaces, Pittsburgh 

Hardware & Heme Supply Co 57,471 

Stoves, vapor burners, and ovens, gasolene 

or vapor, American Stove Co 57,400 

Suspenders, C. A. Edgarton Manufacturing 

Co 57,290, 57,291 

Suspensory bandages, J. R. Somerville. . . . 57,478 

Tablets, stomach, J. W. Stahlberg 57,540 

Talking machines and parts thereof, Victor 

Talking Machine Co 57,551 

Talking machines and talking machine parts 
and records, Universal Talking Machine 

Manufacturing Co 57,550 

Tape, dressmakers', Win. E. Wright & Sons 

Co 57,320 

Tea, B. E. Enge 57,588 

Tea, Geo. A. Young Co 57,580 

1 Tea, Griggs, Cooper & Co 57,592 

Tea, New York Coffee Co 57,001 

Tea and coffee, C. P. Blanke Tea & Coffee 

Co 57,580, 57,581 

Tea and coffee, Mazawattee Tea Co 57,021 

Textiles, certain named, F. W. Thompson 57,314 
Thread, cotton, Clark Mile-End Spool Cotton 

Co 57,378 

Thread, cotton, H. E. Locke 57,41:5 

Tonic, laxative, J. Rosenberg 57,541 

Tonic, malt, Pabst Brewing Co., 

57.333, 57,330, 57,343 
Tools certain named cutting, Collins Co.... 57,408 
Transom adjusters, New York Blind and 

Transom Adjuster Co 57,407 

Typewriter ribbons and carbon paper, Crown 

Ribbon & Carbon Manufacturing Co.... 57,350 
Valve grinding compounds. Auto Equipment 

Co 57,550 

Washboards, American Washboard Co. 57, 430, 57,520 
Washing and cleansing compounds, Trans- 
Pacific Manufacturing Co 57,481 

Washing compound, F. G. Bagley 57,437 

Washing powder, Fairehild & Shelton Co. 57,311 

Washing powder, N. K. Fairbank Co 57,430 

Watches, W. C. Ball 57,492 

Water, mineral, "Apenta" Reszveny-Tarsa- 

sag . . . . 57,321 to 57,323, 57,340 

Waters, ginger ale, and wild cherry phos- 

■ phate, mineral, - Waukesha Arcadian Co. 57,339 

Whisky, Sonn Bros. Co 57,202 

Whisky, Standard Distilling Co 57,203, 57,204 

Whisky, Tucker and McCormack 57,205 

Whisky, J. Walsh & Co 57,200 

Whisky, , Weiss Eichold Liquor Co 57,267 

Whisky, White, Ilentz & Co 57,200 

Whisky, William Werder & Son Co 57,270 

Whisky, F. Wolfernmn 57,271,57,272 

Whisky, Woollier & Co 57,273, 57,274 

Whisky, Chas. A. Zahn Co 57.275 

Whisky, M. H. Haussllng 57,277 

Whisky, Hollenden Hotel Co 57,278 

Whisky, Standard Distilling Co 57,279,57,280 

Whisky, Oilman Einstein Co 57,281, 57,282 

Whisky, J. Walsh & Co 57,283 

Whisky, Weiss Eichold Liquor Co 57,284 

Whisky, F. Wolfernmn 57,285,57,280 

Whisky, S. Hirsch & Co 57,312 

Whisky, M. J. Bligh 57,324 

Whisky, Robinson & Parker 57,474 

Whisky, Wheeling Liquor Co 57,487 

Whisky, . Schmidt & Dechert 57,521 

Whisky, H. Rosenheim & Son 07,. r p42 

Whisky, Dreyfuss, Weil & Co B7.558 

Whisky, Robinson & Parker 57,500 

Whisky, J. Wagner & Sons 57,010 

Whisky, Scotch, F. R. West's Nephews 57,208 

Whisky, Scotch, J. Gillon & Co 57,270 

Wine, I. Rosenzweig 57,337 

Wire netting, fencing, cloth, and lathing, 

New Jersey Wire Cloth Co 57,384 



LABELS 

'Autocrat Whisky.," for whisky, Edwin 

Schiels 13,192 

'Good Luck," for whisky, J. Grossman's Sons 13,193 

'Green Mountain Chewing Gum," for chew- 
ing gum, Green Mountain Gum Co. .... 13,197 

'Honey Cream Tunica, " for honey-cream ex- 
tracts and beverages, German-American 
Honey i'hatnpa.mti' Co 13,195 

'Honeymoon CbOCOmtea, " for confectionery, 

KlTil L. Norton 13,196 

'Logan's Cream Balm Hair Restorer," for a 

hair restorer, Mary E. Logan 13,198 

■Royal Buck," for gin, J. Grossman's Sons 13,194 

■Techado Ruberoid," for a roofing, Standard 

Paint Co. 13,199 

PRINTS. 

'Abbott's Angostura Bitters," for bitters, C. 

W. Abbott and Co 1,831 

'Bear Brand (immos," for guanos, Tennessee 

Chemical Co 1,S38 

''Enlightening tile Clothing World," for cloth- 
ing, Ed. V. Price & Co 1,835 

'■Men and Boys Apparel," for mens and 

boys' apparel, H.. C. Lytton 1 T S33 

"Mon T s Apparel," for men's apparel, W. C. 

Both 1,834 

"Ox Brand Guanos," for guanos, Tennessee 

Chemical Co 1,839 

'■Pearl of Memphis," for beer, Memphis Brew- 
ing & Malting Co 1,832 

"Suggestion Number Five," for woolens, Ed. 

V. Price & C# 1,836 

1 Tri-Plaid Back Bicycle Playing Cards," for 
playing cards, United States Playing 
Card Co 1,837 



A printed copy nf the specification and drawing 
of any patent in the foregoing list, or any patent 
in print issued since 1863, will be furnished from 
this office for 10 cents, provided the name and 
number of the patent desired and the date bt* 
given. Address Munn & Co., 361 Broadway, New 
York. 

Canadian patents may now be obtained by the in- 
ventors for any of the inventions named in the fore- 
going list. For terms and further particulars 
ftddress Munn & Co., 362 Broadway, New York. 




W 



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A Thrilling Story of 
American Business Life 

Wriiien by Broughton 'Brandenburg, President 
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Write at once for a copy. It costs you nothing. 

Prudential Life Insurance Policies are popular 
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The Prudential 

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Every owner of an Auto should insure his car against 
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WATER-WORKS 

Grand Junction, Col., Nov. 3d, 1906. 

Sealed proposals will be received by the City Council 
of the City of Grand Junction, Colorado, until eight 
o'clock P. M. Saturday, November 28th, 1906, for furn- 
ishing material and constructing the Kannah Creek 
pipe line and distributing reservoirs. 

The work will consist of a wooden stave pipe line 
19.8 miles long, varying in size from 12 inches to 22 
inches in diameter, with head works, settling tank, 
regulating and relief valves, and re-inforced concrete 
distributing reservoirs, having a capacity of five million 
gallons. 

Bids will be received for both wire wound, and con- 
tinuous wooden stave pipe, except for the twelve-inch 
pipe which shall be wire wound. 

Plans may be seen, and specifications obtained, at the 
office of the City Clerk of Grand Junction, Colorado, or 
at the offices of Willard Young and Frank C. Kelsey, 
Civil Engineers, Salt Lake City, Utah. A bond furn- 
ished by a surety company will be required for twenty 
percent, of the contract price. The time stated in the 
proposal tor completing the work will be considered in 
awarding.the contract. 

The right is reserved to reject any or all bids or to 
award separate contract for the pipe line and for the 
reservoirs. I. N. BUNTING, Mayor. 

JOHN M. CONLEY, City Clerk. 



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L 



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39^ 



Scientific American, 



November 24, 1906. 




Rubber Elevator & 
Conveyor Belting 

FOR CONVEYING AND LIFTING 
BROKEN STONES, COAL..COKE, WOOD 
PULP, GRAVEL, SAND, SUGAR, etc., etc. 

SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 
EXCEPTIONAL QUALITY 

NEW YORK BELTING & 
PACKING CO., Ltd. 

91-93 Chambers Street, New York 



<5£/VO St.OO NOW 

> ■■ , FOR OUR NEW AMERICAN BOOK 

How To Make Alcohol 

and De-Nature it, from Farm Products, for usein Farm 
Engines, Automobiles, Heating and Liebting. Com- 
plete instructions. Stills illustrated. New Free Alco- 
hol Law and Government Regulations. 

SPON & CHAMBERLAIN 
123 S. A. Liberty Street - NEW YORK 




BRISTOL'S 

Recording Instruments 

For Pressure, Temperature and 

Electricity in all ranges 

INSURE SAFE & ECONOMICAL 

OPERATION 

Write for Catalog T. stating conditions 
THE BRISTOL CO ., Waterbury. Conn., U.S.A. 

New Yort, S14 Liberty Street Chicago, 753 Monadnock Building 




B335H53 



Stationaries, Portables, Hoisters, Pump- 
( ers. Sawine and Boat Outfits, Combined 
] witb Dynamos. 

Gasoline. Gas, Kerosene. 

Send for Catalogue. 
State Power Needs. 
CHARTER GAS ENGINE CO., Box 148, STERLING, ILL. 



nnnl 



Ail varieties at lowest prices. Best llailroad 
Track and Wagon or Stock Scales made. 
Also 1000 useful articles, including safes. 
Sewing Machines, Bicycles, Tools, etc. Save 
Lists Free Chicago Scale Co.. Chicago, 111. 

Calendar Watch 

Roisters the Second, Minute, 
Hour, Day of Week, Date 
of Month, and Phases of 
Moon. Changes Auto- 
matically. Stem-wind 
and set; jewelled pivot 
boles ; expansion bal- 
ance; accurate and relia- 
ble; richly decorated dial 

Price, $ 7-45 

Kcfiindedifnotas * 

represented. Express Prepaid if 

remittance comes with order. 

wo or more, %*t each. References : 

Cum. Agencies, N. Y. Banks or any 

Espies* Co. Fine Holiday Gift. 

Dell hart Makers & Traders, Ltd., 150 Fifth Ave.", New York 




Bausch & Lomb 

Reducing Glasses 




The Reducing Glass gives a miniature image of any desired 
relative size. It is a double concave lens, mounted in neat nick- 
eled ring, with ebonite handle. The Reducing Glass gives you a 
correct idea of the way photographs, drawings or actual objects 
will look when reduced to smaller size for cuts, half tones, etc.; 
also how objects or scenes will look when photographed. 

2 inch lens, £1,20 Post Paid. Catalog on 

3 inch lens, 2.2 5 Post Paid. request. 
Bausch &. Lomb Opt. Co.. Rochester, N'. Y. 

New York Boston Washington 

Chicago San Francisco 



PRICES : 



[LEARN TO BE 

"1 




A WATCHMAKER 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute 

Horological Department 

Peorin, Illinois 

Formerly Parsons Herological Inst. 

Largest and Itest Watch School 

in America 
We teach Watch Work, Jewelry, 
Engraving, Clock Work, Optics. 
Tuition reasonable. Board and 
rooms near school at moderate rates. 
Send for Catalog: of Information. 




OPEN A GARAGE 
There Is Big Money In It 



With the increasing number of 
automobiles being put on the "oad. 
demand for storage, care, and repair 
of motor cars is increasing. There 
are large profits in repair shops, 
gasoline and tire stations and supply stores. 
To be successful in this business you must 

KNOW ALL ABOUT AUTOMOBILES 

their construction and mechanism; their care and repair. 

Through our practical series of text books and expert 
instruction, you can become entirely competent, 

We have a special course of instruction for Garage Man- 
agers and Repair-men. Address for particulars 
The Correspondence School of Automobile Engineering, 
Suite 1883 American Garage, 40 West 60th St.. N. Y, City. 



®(y>^ A® V Ed V IPY ©klg foMJk v Tfl 





The Qualities Peculiarly Neces- 
sary to Ideal Flooring Material for 

Yachts, Steamships, Traction 
Cars, Elevators 

and other situations where constant 
straining occurs, and where a non- 
slippery surface under foot often prevents severe accident, 
are all embodied in 

Kbenns^lpania Interlocking 
IRubber ^ilino 

Its pliability leaves it unaffected by wrenching strains. 

Wet or dry, it permits no slipping, even at a severe slant. 

It is waterproof, non-inflammable, and an electrical non-conductor. 

It never shows wear under years of the heaviest foot-traffic, being 
more durable even than marble. 

Its colors are rich and permanent, and it is adaptable to designs of 
far greater beauty and variety than any other Flooring Material. 

OUR BOOK-OF-DESIGNS-IN-COLOR, WITH DETAILED INFORMATION REGARD- 
ING PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER TILING, SENT FREE ON REQUEST 

Pennsylvania Rubber Company 

JEANNETTE, PA. 




©■m v Tif 



isSfffe 



3,~.;-' 



^RG0.W?1ERICAN 



to the ideal cOmliSnnliAli nt tlie Oriental 
/ Narciiih *v!thntit ita c] uxii&iTmra, and the 
OccfSvBfel pipe without its Injurious 
efiecta mi ;r>: faualLh. of the fctnoker, 
Tlia Turkish Water Pipe afiurrJH 
th« beallbieal fim^he M pmvfed 
hy tbo proverbial loupe vily at 
the Turks. Tbt fwtitrua Ttorcif 
American GfataHve is 9 ptrf- 
tQ&tpip* with ail the health 
£/-nri}\<rt»(iftht fta.Tt}h-i}$ 
andthe twr-readintas 




Through 
its clear 
non-breaka- 
bowl 
can see 
very wreath of 
smoke, in itself 
the greatest delight 
the fastidious pipe 
The nicotine 
is segregated absolutely 
in the bottom of the bowl. 
Thus the Turco-Amcrican 
Pipe assures a delightfully 
dry, clear, clean smoke.' No 
biting the tongue, no net to- 
bacco remnants to throw away as 
every bit of tobacco in the pipe 
is consumed to a clear white ash. 
Smoke it a week, and you will be so 
attached to it that you would not part 
with it for many times the amount of its cost. But if not entirely 
Hfttisfactorv in every respect, return it and we will send back your 
money. Straight or drop stems. Price $1. 50, postpaid in United 
States and Canada. Foreign countries add postage. Reference : 
National Bank of Commerce. Booklet for the asking. 

TheTurco-AmericanPipeCo,, 215 South Ave, Rochester, N.Y. 



Tools! Tools! Tools! 




and all you want to know about 
them. Our Tool Catalogue No. 
22 is a cloth-bound book of 950 
pages. If you want to " know 
it all " about Tools you should 
send for this book at once 
Sent post-paid on receipt of 
$1.00 which will be refunded 
from your first purchase from 
us of $10.00 or over. 

nONTGOMERY & CO. 

105 Fulton Street, N. Y. City 




OLDS 

Engines 



Olds Gas Engines and Pintsch 
Suction Qas Producers are built in 
the same plant— engines 2 to 1,600 h. p. 
— producers 4 to 2,000 h. p. 

We know each complete plant (pro- 
ducer and engine) will run right before 
it leaves the- factory, perfectly adapted 
to the coals you, will use — operating 
costs are 1-3 to 1-5 -of steam, 1-2 of 
gasoline — adapted to all kinds of work. 

Send for detailed information applied 
to your requirements. 

OLDS OAS POWER CO. 
947 Chestnut St., Lansing, Mich. 

Formerly Olds Gasoline Engine Works 



Pintsch, 

Suction Gas Producer 





WM. H. BRISTOL 
Electric Pyrometers 

Portable and Switchboard Forms. 
All ranges to 2900° F. Practical, Ac- 
curate. Inexpensive. Guaranteed to 
give, satisfaction, . Send for circulars. 

Wm. H. Bristol, 45 Vesey St., New York 




Mullins 




Makes Everything In 

Art Architectural Sheet Metal Work 

Statuary — Ornamental Sheet Metal Work — Skylights — Fireproof 
Windows — Art Metal Tile Roofing — Steel Ceilings — Finials — 
Wrought Iron Grilles — Cornices, etc., etc. Estimates, models and 
designs submitted for architects, builders and contractors. 

Our 120-Page Catalogue of stock designs will be sent on request. 

The W. fi. Mullins Co. ,203 Franklin Street, Salem, Ohio. 



STEAM USERS 



MM PacKing 

The original and only genuine 
red sheet packing. 

The only effective and most 
economical flange packing in ex- 
istence. 

Can't blow Rainbow out. 

For steam, air, hot or cold 
water, acid and ammonia joints. 

Beware of imitations. 

Look for the trade mark — the 
word Rainbow in a diamond in 
black, three rows of which extend 
the full length of each roll. 

Manufactured exclusively by 

PEERLESS RUBBER riFG. CO. 

16 Warren St., New York 



COLD GALVANIZING. 

AMERICAN PROCESS. NO ROYALTIES. 

SAMPLESanoINFORMATIONon application. ■ 



NICKEL 

AMg> 

Electro-Plating 

Apparatus ana Material 

THE 

Hanson & Van Winkle 

Co., 
Newark. S. J . 

28 & SOS. Canal Si. 
Ctneasro. 





W£ SAVE YOU 35# TO 602 
ON TYPEWRITERS 

All Standard Makes 

Guaranteed equal to new in appearance 
andquality of work. Thoroii(*hk vbtiilt. 
Why pay $100 for a TYPEWRITER we 

sell tor $40 to $fi5? Discounts .iiuniers 

five or more. 



Second-hand typewriters $15 to 
Agents wanted. Seud f»r partic 



Adds Double Heating | 
CAPACITY 

toany stove, and fits any pipe.. 

If you would save one-half your 
fuel bills, the 

NEW ERA 
RADIATOR 

will do it, because its simple and 
scientific construction of drums and 
flues are compactly arranged to take 
the place of a stove pipe length; 
thoroughly radiating all the heat 
which usually goes up the chimney. 
We also make NEW ERAS for the 
furnace, and you should ask your 
dealer or write for full particulars to 

WILMOT CASTLE CO. 

17 A Elm St., Rochester, H. Y. § 




On £*aT)t 



liver's Band Saws 



20-in Foot or Belt Power 
20-in. Belt Power 
32-in. Belt Power 
36=ln. Belt Power 

ALSO 

Hub Boxing and Spoke Tenon 

Machines, Forges, Drills and 

"Ohio" Feed and En- 

silage Cutters 




Manufactured by 

THE SILVER MFG. 

SALEM, OHIO 



CO. 



THE MIETZ 




& WEISS 

OIL ENGINES 

Stationary 1 % to 80 H. P, 
Marine Z% to 100 H. P. 

Use KEROSENE and FUEL 
OILS. Direct connected Gen- 
erators, Pumps, Air Compressors. 
Hoists, etc. Thousands in use in 
all parts of the world. 

AUGUST MIETZ 

128-138 Mott St., NewYork, U.S.A. 




THE "LEADER." 

liH.P. Gasolene Auto-Marine Engine 

Built like a watch. PeantifuJly Finished. Accu- 
rately Constructed. Light, Slri/iiy. Reliable, and 
Noiseless in operation. Suitable for launches 
from 15 to In feet in length. Price complete, 
$75 net, no discount. Thoroughly guaranteed. 
Perfect Speed Cm trol. Complete descriptive Cata- 
log upon application. Manufactured by. 

CLAUDE SINTZ, 

292 S. Front St., Grand Rapids. Mich. 




15 to 31 South Clinton Street.